Radio New Zealand National. 2015-02-26. 05:00-23:59.

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A recording of Radio New Zealand National from 5am to midnight. The following rundown is sourced from the broadcaster’s website. Note some overseas/copyright restricted items may not appear in the supplied rundown:

26 February 2015

===12:04 AM. | All Night Programme===
=DESCRIPTION=

Including: 12:05 Music after Midnight; 12:30 One in Five (RNZ); 1:05 Discovery (BBC); 2:05 The Thursday Feature (RNZ); 3:05 Wrestling with God, by Lloyd Geering (4 of 12, RNZ); 3:30 NZ Books (RNZ); 5:10 Witness (BBC)

===5:50 AM. | In Parliament===
=DESCRIPTION=

===6:00 AM. | Morning Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's three-hour breakfast news show with news and interviews, bulletins on the hour and half-hour

=AUDIO=

06:00
Top Stories for Thursday 26 February 2015
BODY:
Baby formula exporters are crying foul, they say they're being pushed out of business as China sets up formula plants here. Early childhood centres say new food safety regulations are another bit of red tape they don't need and Labour stands down Carmel Sepuloni as its social development spokesperson, her mother is in court on benefit fraud charges.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 30'57"

06:06
Sports News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'05"

06:10
Paid parental bill fails...kind of
BODY:
Allegations of political betrayal and deception were levelled in Parliament last night as the Government killed off a bill that would have given new parents in exceptional circumstances more time off work.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: paid parental leave
Duration: 2'39"

06:16
Pacific News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
The latest from the Pacific region.
Topics: Pacific
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'39"

06:19
Morning Rural News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sector.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'03"

06:23
Blood found on ceiling, walls, hallway, of Lundy home
BODY:
Graphic details of blood at the Lundys' home being found on the ceiling, walls, hallway, spare room and even as far as the kitchen sink was presented in the High Court in Wellington yesterday.
Topics: crime
Regions:
Tags: Lundy
Duration: 2'49"

06:26
Te Manu Korihi News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
A former Māori Language Commissioner is blaming some iwi for the loss of the Māori language; A Whanganui sports organisation has added the letter 'h' to its name, saying the change reflects the positive relationship it has with local iwi; Ngati Kahungunu elders are banning swimming, waka ama and fishing from a popular harbour attraction in Hawke's Bay after a body was found in the waterway; The latest group of Māori political candidates have gained the respect of Te Arawa Kaumatua, Sir Toby Curtis, as competent leaders.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'29"

06:39
Chinese investment in NZ is bigger then expected
BODY:
A Wall Street Journal correspondent who was in New Zealand this month says Chinese investment here appears much larger than the figures indicate.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: China, investment
Duration: 2'24"

06:41
Australia considering hefty new fees for foreign home buyers
BODY:
Foreign investors buying Australian houses or businesses may be hit with hefty new fees.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Australia, housing, investment
Duration: 2'35"

06:46
Xero shares jump on capital raising, appointment of new US head
BODY:
Xero shares leapt as much as 27 percent yesterday after the accounting software company raised almost 150 million dollars and appointed a new head of its operations in the United States.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Xero
Duration: 2'31"

06:49
Air New Zealand plans a global expansion
BODY:
Air New Zealand will extend its presence globally, starting flights to Argentina from the end of the year.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Air New Zealand
Duration: 2'12"

06:51
Ebos has about $300m to make acquisitions
BODY:
Ebos has about 300 million dollars available to make further acquisitions without needing to raise more capital.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Ebos
Duration: 1'06"

06:52
Precinct Properties seeks $174.1m to fund development plans
BODY:
Precinct Properties is seeking to raise 174 point 1 million dollars from shareholders to fund future developments.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Precinct Properties
Duration: 1'55"

06:54
A2 Milk says US launch won't spread its resources too thinly
BODY:
A2 Milk says it won't be spreading its resources too thinly when it launches in the United States in the fourth quarter of this year.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: A2 Milk
Duration: 1'50"

06:56
Wynyard Group full-year loss doubles
BODY:
Wynyard Group has almost doubled its annual loss, as it accelerated its growth plans.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Wynyard Group
Duration: 49"

06:57
Tourism Holdings on track for full-year net profit of $17m
BODY:
Tourism Holdings says it's on track to deliver a full-year profit of 17 million dollars, with strong demand to rent its campervans from international visitors.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Tourism Holdings
Duration: 1'01"

06:58
Multinational companies in China struggle to recruit
BODY:
Multinational companies operating in China are struggling to recruit top executives.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Asia
Duration: 1'04"

06:59
Morning markets for 26 February 2015
BODY:
The Dow Jones Index is up 17 points to 18,226.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 43"

07:07
Sports News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'59"

07:11
Chinese firms dominating NZ infant formula sector
BODY:
China is grabbing control of New Zealand's infant formula industry - halving the amount of exports and shutting smaller players out of the market, according to a group representing the exporters.
Topics: business, farming
Regions:
Tags: infant formula, China
Duration: 3'24"

07:14
Challenging times for baby formula exporters.
BODY:
And, listening to that is the Honorary Professor of Agri-food systems at Lincoln University, Keith Woodford.
Topics: business, farming
Regions:
Tags: infant formula, China
Duration: 5'02"

07:20
ECE groups see threat in food regulations
BODY:
Early childhood centres say new food safety regulations will force many of them to stop feeding children.
Topics: education
Regions:
Tags: food safety regulations
Duration: 3'02"

07:23
Labour's social development spokeswoman stood down
BODY:
It wasn't a good day for Labour yesterday with Labour's social development spokeswoman Carmel Sepuloni being stood down after it was revealed her mother is facing multiple charges of welfare fraud.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: Labour
Duration: 3'00"

07:27
Buses replace train services between Wellington and Porirua
BODY:
Buses will replace train services between Wellington and Porirua this morning after a branch fell on overhead lines yesterday, causing major disruptions. Our reporter Paloma Migone has more on this situation.
Topics: transport
Regions: Wellington Region
Tags: trains
Duration: 2'05"

07:29
Queensland fruit fly bumps the Pasifika Festival from venue
BODY:
Auckland's fruit fly infestation has forced organisers to move The Pasifika Festival.
Topics: arts, farming
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Pasifika Festival, Queensland fruit fly
Duration: 3'47"

07:37
Report into codeine overdose angers father
BODY:
The father of a boy who was given 10 times the intended amount of codeine before routine surgery, is appalled those who made the error have not been punished.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: codeine
Duration: 4'51"

07:42
Iraqi ambassador says NZ troops in Iraq will be safe
BODY:
The Iraqi Ambassador to New Zealand says he hopes New Zealand military trainers will be stationed in Iraq for months rather than years.
Topics: politics, defence force
Regions:
Tags: Iraq, defence force
Duration: 5'06"

07:50
Tourism New Zealand should do more to help overseas drivers.
BODY:
Tourism New Zealand is defending the job it's doing in driving home the road safety message for to overseas visitors.
Topics: transport
Regions:
Tags: Tourism New Zealand, car crashes
Duration: 3'33"

07:54
Haast residents frightened by tourist drivers
BODY:
People living on the South Island's west coast are so concerned about some of the driving by tourists that they're having to take matters into their own hands.
Topics: transport
Regions: West Coast
Tags: car crashes
Duration: 3'15"

07:57
Wgtn city council proposes rates hike of 3.9%
BODY:
The Wellington City Council is proposing to raise rates and borrow more money to kickstart projects including a new film museum and a longer airport runway.
Topics: politics
Regions: Wellington Region
Tags: rates rise
Duration: 2'45"

08:07
Sports News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'06"

08:11
Infant Formula Exporters association
BODY:
China is grabbing control of New Zealand's infant formula industry - halving the amount of exports and shutting smaller players out of the market, according to a group representing the exporters.
Topics: farming, business
Regions:
Tags: infant formula, China
Duration: 4'54"

08:16
Early childhood centres say lunches could go
BODY:
Early childhood centres say a tough new stance by food safety authorities means some could have to stop giving food to children.
Topics: food, education, law
Regions:
Tags: food safety, schools, pre-schools
Duration: 4'17"

08:21
Buses replace train services between Wellington and Porirua
BODY:
Train services from Porirua to the city have been replaced by bus services due to a branch over the track.
Topics: transport
Regions: Wellington Region
Tags: trains
Duration: 1'48"

08:23
Iraqi ambassador happy NZ has committed troops
BODY:
The Iraqi Ambassador to New Zealand says he's happy New Zealand has committed military troops to Iraq to help in the fight against Islamic State.
Topics: politics, defence force
Regions:
Tags: Iraq, defence force
Duration: 3'53"

08:27
Comparison of IS to Nazi Germany 'ludicrous'
BODY:
As fears grow for even more Christians possibly captured by Islamic State, the movement's comparisons with Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union are being watered down.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Islamic State
Duration: 3'53"

08:31
Markets Update for 26 February 2015
BODY:
A brief update of movements in the financial sector.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 54"

08:36
Paris drone mystery deepens with more sightings
BODY:
Drones have appeared over landmarks in central Paris for the second night running and police are no closer to knowing who is operating them.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: France, Paris, drones
Duration: 3'33"

08:40
Mobile phone harm study finds falling brain cancer in NZ.
BODY:
A New Zealand study has concluded that cellphone use does not not increase the risk of brain tumours.
Topics: technology
Regions:
Tags: cellphones, radiation, cancer
Duration: 2'58"

08:43
Study shows cancer survival worse in NZ than Australia
BODY:
Another study has been published showing New Zealanders are more likely to die from cancer than Australians.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: Cancer study
Duration: 3'54"

08:49
Te Manu Korihi News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
A guardian of the Māori pre-school movement says she's never known a time when Māori have been so disparate; A Whanganui sports organisation has added the letter 'h' to its name, saying the change reflects the positive relationship it has with local iwi; Ngati Kahungunu elders are banning swimming, waka ama and fishing from a popular harbour attraction in Hawke's Bay after a body was found in the waterway; The latest group of Māori political candidates have gained the respect of Te Arawa Kaumatua, Sir Toby Curtis, as competent leaders.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'17"

08:52
Farmers reliant on Opuha Dam take financial hit
BODY:
Farmers reliant on South Canterbury's Opuha irrigation scheme are set to take a big financial hit now that the tap has been turned off.
Topics: farming
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: Opuha irrigation scheme, Opuha
Duration: 3'17"

08:55
Christchurch public consider quake memorial options
BODY:
The husband of a woman who died in the CTV building during the February 2011 earthquake is encouraging the public to have their say on a memorial to honour the 185 people who lost their lives four years ago.
Topics: Canterbury earthquakes
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: memorial, CTV building
Duration: 3'46"

=SHOW NOTES=

===9:06 AM. | Nine To Noon===
=DESCRIPTION=

Current affairs and topics of interest, including: 10:45 Kirkcaldies, 3 O'Clock, by Vincent O'Sullivan, read by Donna Akersten (1 of 2, RNZ)

=AUDIO=

09:07
Supercity rifts within Wellington Regional Council
BODY:
Paul Swain is on the Wellington Regional Council. Fran Wilde is the chair of the Wellington Regional Council
Topics: politics
Regions: Wellington Region
Tags: supercity, Wellington Regional Council
Duration: 21'41"

09:33
As NZ commits to Iraq, what's the true human rights situation?
BODY:
As the militant group Islamic State has carved a swathe through Iraq, Syria and Libya, it has become known for high-profile murder videos - posted online - of journalists, aid workers, a pilot, and Egyptian Coptic Christians. It comes along with horror stories about widespread rape, public beheadings and floggings, and reports of suspected homosexuals being thrown from buildings, in cities that IS has taken control of. Will Western-led air strikes, and shoring up the Iraqi army - as New Zealand is planning to do in a training capacity - help prevent such atrocities? Yifat Susskind is the executive director of Madre, an international women's rights organisation, and has been working closely with human rights activists on the ground in Iraq.
EXTENDED BODY:
As the militant group Islamic State has carved a swathe through Iraq, Syria and Libya, it has become known for high-profile murder videos - posted online - of journalists, aid workers, a pilot, and Egyptian Coptic Christians.
It comes along with horror stories about widespread rape, public beheadings and floggings, and reports of suspected homosexuals being thrown from buildings, in cities that IS has taken control of.
Will Western-led air strikes, and shoring up the Iraqi army - as New Zealand is planning to do in a training capacity - help prevent such atrocities?
Yifat Susskind is the executive director of Madre, an international women's rights organisation, and has been working closely with human rights activists on the ground in Iraq. She talks to Kathryn Ryan.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Islamic State, ISIS, Yifat Susskind, Iraq, Madre, women's rights, human rights
Duration: 17'46"

09:51
UK correspondent, Jon Dennis
BODY:
Jon Dennis reports on the three British schoolgirls feared to have flown to Syria to join Islamic State, Ex-foreign secretaries caught in cash-for-access.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: UK
Duration: 7'54"

10:05
Gluten: the villain of the food world?
BODY:
Millions of people around the world claim to be gluten intolerant. But is this a food fad that has got out of hand?
EXTENDED BODY:
Is gluten really the monster some would have you believe?
Professor Peter Gibson, who specialises in irritable bowel syndrome, believes not. He has a large tide of public opinion to fight against, however.
The sale of gluten free products has skyrocketed around the world. In the US sales increased by an average of 34 percent a year in the past five years.
So why has gluten become the villain of the food world?
Only around 1 percent of the population has coeliac disease, an autoimmune disorder trigged by gluten. In Australia it has been estimated that for every person diagnosed with coeliac disease there are 20 people who are on a gluten-free diet.
Around the world there are millions who believe they suffer an intolerance to gluten, which has been linked to irritable bowel syndrome, mood disorders, joint pain and many other health problems.
Gluten is a protein in wheat, rye, and barley that is commonly found in bread, beer and pasta. We have been eating it since we first started domesticating grains like wheat around 12,000 years ago.
Gluten started falling out of favour about a decade ago, when various diet books claimed it was harmful to health. One of the first was Wheat Belly by cardiologist, William Davis. He claimed gluten was responsible for a range of conditions including arthritis, diabetes, asthma and multiple sclerosis. It became a New York Times Best Seller.
Other medical professionals followed suit such as US neurologist, Dr David Perlmutter. His 2013 book “Grain Brain: The Surprising Truth About Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar—Your Brain’s Silent Killers,” claimed gluten sensitivity “represents one of the greatest and most under-recognized health threats to humanity".
Many celebrities have publicly espoused the benefits of the gluten free diet. Tennis star Novak Djokovic says he was diagnosed as intolerant to gluten in 2009, and eliminating it from his diet made him the tennis champion he is today.
Initial studies into the causes of irritable bowel syndrome did seem to indicate a link to gluten. But one of the biggest and most rigorous studies, completed by a team at Melbourne's Monash University, has shown no link.
That study was lead by Professor Gibson.
In 2011 he and his team published a study that did link gluten with gastrointestinal symptoms in people without coeliac disease. However he was unsatisfied with the results because the research shed no light on why gluten might be causing these symptoms. So he redesigned the study to remove all variables, doing what he called "the gold standard test, a randomised placebo controlled rechallenge study".
The results of that study showed the cause of bloating, pain and digestive issues in patients with Self-Reported Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity was the sugars that appear naturally in foods, known as FODMAPs: Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Monosaccharides and Polyols'.
Because these are also found in foods like wheat Professor Gibson said it explained why people's symptoms appeared to improve on a gluten free diet. He said FODMAPs provoke far more intestinal distress than gluten and more than three quarters of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome who come to his clinic see significant improvements with a low FODMAP diet.
Professor Gibson talks to Kathryn Ryan about his findings, and why he believes most of those following a gluten free diet may be doing themselves more harm than good.
Topics: health, food
Regions:
Tags: gluten, gluten intolerance
Duration: 29'36"

10:38
Book review: 'The Chimes' by Anna Smaill
BODY:
Published by Hodder. Reviewed by Carole Beu.
Topics: books
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'25"

11:09
New technology with Sarah Putt
BODY:
Sarah Putt discusses why Spark and Chorus are at odds over pricing, Apple's diverse emojis and Open Source academy turns five.
Topics: technology
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 15'03"

11:25
Girl Bullying
BODY:
Social exclusion, silent treatment, gossip, and put downs. What are the best ways to help girls deal with cruelty disguised as friendship?
EXTENDED BODY:
"Sorry, you're not invited." "Why are you wearing THAT skirt?" "This seat's taken."
It's a more subtle form of bullying, but one that can leave children isolated and miserable. And it can be hard for parents and teachers to recognise because it is often disguised as friendship.
Child and Adolescent Therapist Signe Whitson has spent two decades working in the field of bullying prevention. Her book Friendship & Other Weapons delves into what constitutes girl bullying and how parents and teachers can recognise it and help children deal with it.
She says the most common bullying behaviors include:
1. Excluding girls from parties and play dates
2. Talking about parties and play dates in front of girls who are not invited
3. Mocking, teasing, and calling girls names
4. Giving girls the "silent treatment"
5. Threatening to take away friendship ("I won't be your friend anymore if...")
6. Encouraging others to "gang up" on a girl you are angry with
7. Spreading rumors and starting gossip about a girl
8. "Forgetting" to save a seat for a friend or leaving a girl out by "saving a seat" for someone else
9. Saying something mean and then following it with "just joking" to try to avoid blame
10. Using cell phones and/or social media to gossip, start rumors, say mean things, or forward embarrassing posts and photos
Ms Whitson said because it could be so subtle, and based around crimes of omission, it was often very hard for girls to put their finger on what they were experiencing.
So when should parents step in? In a piece she wrote for the Huffington Post last month, Ms Whitson outlined the best ways parents can help.
The line between helicopter and hands-off can get confusing, as adults waver between wanting to protect young people from the pain of broken friendships and believing that bullying is an inevitable rite of passage. The bottom line is this: no child should have to find her way through painful conflict alone.... Adults play a critical role in keeping an open dialogue with young people and making them aware of the typical behaviors that mark this cruel form of social aggression.

She said one of the key things parents could teach girls was to not suppress their anger. She said many girls were taught from an early age that anger was bad, which made it very difficult for them to stand up to bullying.
She talks to Kathryn Ryan on Nine to Noon about girl bullying: how to recognise it and how to deal with it.
Topics: health, life and society
Regions:
Tags: bullying, girls
Duration: 17'56"

11:49
Film Review with Dan Slevin
BODY:
Dan Slevin discusses Academy Award-winning documentary about NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, Citizen Four.
Topics: media
Regions:
Tags: films, Cinema
Duration: 10'41"

=SHOW NOTES=

09:05 Supercity rifts within Wellington Regional Council

Paul Swain is on the Wellington Regional Council. Fran Wilde is the chair of the Wellington Regional Council
09:30 As NZ commits to Iraq, what's the true human rights situation?
As the militant group Islamic State has carved a swathe through Iraq, Syria and Libya, it has become known for high-profile murder videos - posted online - of journalists, aid workers, a pilot, and Egyptian Coptic Christians. It comes along with horror stories about widespread rape, public beheadings and floggings, and reports of suspected homosexuals being thrown from buildings, in cities that IS has taken control of. Will Western-led air strikes, and shoring up the Iraqi army - as New Zealand is planning to do in a training capacity - help prevent such atrocities? Yifat Susskind is the executive director of Madre, an international women's rights organisation, and has been working closely with human rights activists on the ground in Iraq.
09:45 UK correspondent, Jon Dennis
Jon Dennis reports on the three British schoolgirls feared to have flown to Syria to join Islamic State, Ex-foreign secretaries caught in cash-for-access.
10:05 Why is gluten a food villain?
Professor Peter Gibson is a professor of gastroenterology at Australia's Monash University. He has spent many years studying irritable bowel syndrome and its links to gluten, and says his team has proven that gluten is not the culprit.
10:35 Book review: 'The Chimes' by Anna Smaill
Published by Hodder. Reviewed by Carole Beu.
10:45 The Reading: 'Kirkcaldies, 3 O'Clock' by Vincent O'Sullivan
A two-part story from the short story collection 'The Families'. Read by Donna Akersten (Part 1 of 2, RNZ)
11:05 New technology with Sarah Putt
Sarah Putt discusses why Spark and Chorus are at odds over pricing, Apple's diverse emojis and Open Source academy turns five.
11:25 Parenting - dealing with girl bullying
US-based social worker, school counsellor and author Signe Whitson has spent many years looking into bullying by girls. She is the author of Friendship & Other Weapons, a discussion guide and curriculum for parents and teachers and regularly speaks to schools about girl bullying.
11:45 Film Review with Dan Slevin
Dan Slevin discusses Academy Award-winning documentary about NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, Citizen Four.

=PLAYLIST=

Artist: Lindon Puffin
Song: Outta Reach
Composer: Puffin
Album: Hope Holiday
Label: PRIVATE 2445
Time: 9.30am
Artist: Leon Bridges
Song: Better Man
Composer: Bridges
Album: n/a
Label: COLUMBIA
Time: 10.05am

Artist: La De Das
Song: How is the Air Up There
Composer: Duboff/Kornfield
Album: n/a
Label: EMI 821713
Time: 11.05am
Artist: Mavis Staples feat Jeff Tweedy
Song: Can You Get to That
Composer: Clinton/Harris
Album: One True Vine
Label: ANTI 787206
Time: 11.25am
Artist: G. Love and Special Sauce
Song: Blues Music
Composer: Dulton
Album: n/a
Label: Big Chill 840871
Time: 11.45am

===Noon | Midday Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, followed by updates and reports until 1.00pm, including: 12:16 Business News 12:26 Sport 12:34 Rural News 12:43 Worldwatch

=AUDIO=

12:00
Midday News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
Remuneration Authority is urged notto lift MP's salaries, and disgraced lawyer Davina Murray is found to be unfit for her job and is struck off.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 15'35"

12:17
Migration gains hit records
BODY:
New Zealand gained a record 5500 net new residents in January, taking the annual increase in net migrants to nearly 54-thousand people.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'05"

12:19
Fonterra holds forecast milk price
BODY:
The dairy co-operative, Fonterra, has held its forecast milk price steady, saying the recent rises in dairy auction prices are not enough to raise the payout to its farmers at this point.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'04"

12:20
Scales' annual profit fell 10% but beat forecast by 15.4%
BODY:
Scales' annual net profit has fallen 10%, but the apple grower exceeded its prospectus forecast by more than 15%. The company made a net profit of $18.4 million in 2014, after sales dropped 3% to $263 million
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'01"

12:21
Turners & Growers full year net profit falls 2%: revenues flat
BODY:
Turners and Growers' full year net profit has fallen, due to difficult international trading conditions, price pressures and lower export volumes, resulting from damaging hail.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 23"

12:22
Trade surplus for January
BODY:
Lower dairy and oil prices have weighed on the trade balance. Official figures show a trade surplus of $56 million in January.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 27"

12:23
MYOB lifts annual loss by half as products costs near double
BODY:
MYOB has increased its annual loss by half as costs nearly doubled on new product development and launch costs.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'02"

12:23
Vital Healthcare's first half net profit falls 16%
BODY:
Vital Healthcare Property Trust's half year profit has fallen 16%, reflecting the impact of a $4.7 million tax expense and other tax adjustments. The hospital and healthcare property trust made a net profit of 13.945 million dollars in the six months to December.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'19"

12:23
Midday Sports News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
Breakers remain confident heading into their NBL final's campaign.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'36"

12:24
Midday Markets for 26 February 2015
BODY:
For the latest from the markets we're joined by Melika King at Craigs Investment Partners.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'16"

12:35
Midday Rural News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sectors.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 7'35"

=SHOW NOTES=

===1:06 PM. | Afternoons===
=DESCRIPTION=

Information and debate, people and places around NZ

=AUDIO=

13:10
Your Song - The Nights
BODY:
Chloe Phillips-Harris chooses 'The Nights' by Avicii.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 12'43"

13:21
Our New Zealand A to Z - Brass bands
BODY:
Simon Mercep talks to conductor of Wellington Brass David Bremner, former President of The Brass Band Association Diane Smeehuyzen, and Denis Teeling-Marlborough who is playing The Last Post every day until ANZAC Day.
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags: Brass
Duration: 39'21"

14:08
Why is cricket on the decline in NZ schools?
BODY:
One of the mainstays of New Zealand's sporting year is cricket. And right now, at the senior level, the sport is in good heart. New Zealand's co-hosting the World Cup, the national side is enjoying a run of success, and players like Brendan McCallum and Kane Williamson are household names. Cricket has traditionally been one of the country's favourite sports, but it is now less popular than badminton. Simon Mercep speaks to the game development manager at Auckland Cricket to find out why so few people are picking up the bat.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags: cricket
Duration: 11'56"

14:20
Blind teenager successfully lobbies for tactile bank notes
BODY:
A blind Australian teenagers' campaign to print tactile banknotes has paid off. 13-year-old Connor McLeod lobbied the Reserve Bank of Australia to print the notes in order to assist visually impaired people, and he won.
Topics: disability
Regions:
Tags: Australia, accessibility, bank notes
Duration: 8'59"

14:45
Feature Album - Music
BODY:
The US singer-songwriter Carole King has called a tribute musical about her early life "a wonderful gift" as the Tony-winning show made its West End debut in London. King took to the stage to thank the "spectacular" cast of Beautiful before singing hit song 'You've Got a Friend'.
Topics: music, arts
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Tags: theatre
Duration: 14'42"

15:10
The Expats - theatre director James Sutherland
BODY:
Simon Mercep talks to theatre director, James Sutherland, who has set up his own theatre company in Japan.
Topics: arts
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Tags: Japan, theatre
Duration: 12'32"

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 26 February 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
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Duration: 13'53"

=SHOW NOTES=

1:10 Your Song
The Nights - Avicii. Chosen by Chloe Phillips-Harris
1:20 Our New Zealand A to Z - Brass bands
David Bremner- conductor of Wellington Brass Band
Diane Smeehuyzen-former president NZ brass band Ass.
Denis Teeling-Marlborough Brass Band
2:10 Why is cricket on the decline in NZ schools?
Cricket has traditionally been one of the country's favourite sports, but it is now less popular than badminton - we speak to game development manager at Auckland Cricket to find out why so few people are picking up the bat.
2:20 Bank notes for the visually impaired
A blind Australian teenagers' campaign to print tactile banknotes has paid off. 13-year-old Connor McLeod lobbyed the Reserve Bank of Australia to print the notes in order to assist visually impaired people, and he won.
2:30 NZ Reading - The Crime Of Huey Dunstan
Ches cites Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as a defence for Huey in the second trial
2:45 Feature album
Music. Carole King (1971)
3:10 The Expats
This week we talk to theatre director, James Sutherland, who has set up his own theatre company in Japan.

Expat James Sutherland and his theatre company CITA in Tokyo
3:20 BBC Witness
In 1994, CIA officer Aldrich Ames was arrested for spying for the Russians
3:35 Our Changing World
Mead Stream Gorge, north of Kaikoura, cuts through a sequence of rocks that span the entire geological history of New Zealand, from about 90 million years ago right through to the present day. Veronika Meduna joins geologists and a group of locals for a time-travelling field trip
Stories from Our Changing World.
3:45 The Panel Pre-Show
With Jim Mora, Zara Potts, Catherine Robertson and Simon Pound

===4:06 PM. | The Panel===
=DESCRIPTION=

An hour of discussion featuring a range of panellists from right along the opinion spectrum (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 26 February 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
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Tags:
Duration: 13'53"

16:06
The Panel with Simon Pound and Catherine Robertson (Part 1)
BODY:
Dean Barker dumped as Team NZ Skipper, Foreign drivers on New Zealand roads, David Cunliffe caught driving using mobile, and the Availability of Christian curriculums.
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Duration: 23'55"

16:08
Panel introduction
BODY:
What the panelists Simon Pound and Catherine Robertson have been up to.
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Duration: 4'23"

16:12
Dean Barker dumped as Team NZ Skipper
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Team New Zealand is ditching Dean Barker in favour of Peter Burling as its skipper for the next America's Cup Challenge.
Topics: sport
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Tags: yachting, America's Cup
Duration: 1'15"

16:16
Foreign drivers on New Zealand roads
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The southern regional manager of the NZ Transport Association Jim Harland joins The Panel to tell us if the Signature Programme for road safety is getting anywhere with issues around tourist drivers.
Topics: transport
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Duration: 12'03"

16:25
David Cunliffe caught driving using mobile
BODY:
The former Labour leader David Cunliffe says he didn't know it was an offense to use hands free while driving.
Topics: politics, transport
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Duration: 1'23"

16:26
Availability of Christian curriculum
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A mother of a new entrant is upset after not having prior knowledge of exactly what her 5 year-old would be taught during Bible in Schools sessions.
Topics: education
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Duration: 4'44"

16:34
National anthems
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Does your heart swell with pride when you hear national anthems or does some of the sexist language make you cringe?
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Tags: flags, gender
Duration: 4'41"

16:34
The Panel with Simon Pound and Catherine Robertson (Part 2)
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Group appointed to oversee flag change, Cliff Richard and natural justice.
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Duration: 26'01"

16:39
Group appointed to oversee flag change
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The make up of the panel to decide on our national symbol, the New Zealand flag, has been announced. We ask John Moody of the New Zealand Flag Association what he makes of the line-up.
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Duration: 10'39"

16:49
The Panel says
BODY:
What's on the minds of panelists Simon Pound and Catherine Robertson?
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Duration: 5'41"

16:55
Cliff Richard and natural justice
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British pop icon Sir Cliff Richard is being investigated over historic sex assault charges. The police raid on his home was filmed by TV crews who'd been given the heads up. We ask lawyer Michael Bott if the pop star is being treated with bias.
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Duration: 4'56"

=SHOW NOTES=

===5:00 PM. | Checkpoint===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's two-hour news and current affairs programme

=AUDIO=

17:00
Checkpoint Top Stories for Thursday 26 February 2015
BODY:
MPs get a huge pay rise; Team NZ confirms Dean Barker no longer skipper; Slip forces evacuation of three homes in Far North; Kim Dotcom wants money for rent and groceries; and Law Society says Davina Murray has made it harder for lawyers to deal with clients.
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Duration: 24'24"

17:08
MPs get a huge pay rise
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The Prime Minister is disappointed the Remuneration Authority ignored his request not to increase the pay of MPs and ministers. The authority has announced MPs' pay will go up by 5.5%.
Topics: politics
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Duration: 3'23"

17:12
Team NZ confirms Dean Barker no longer skipper
BODY:
Dean Barker has lost his job steering Team New Zealand's yacht in the America's Cup, replaced by Peter Burling and an Australian yachtie. Multiple world champion Glenn Ashby is the surprise announcement to share the helm.
Topics: sport
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Tags: yachting, America's Cup
Duration: 7'58"

17:20
Slip forces evacuation of three homes in Far North
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A Bay of Island pensioner with a terminal illness is furious he found out by letter that a landslide is forcing him and his wife out of their home. The Far North District Council has written to the owners of three properties at Hihitahi Rise and Te Haumi Drive in Paihia telling them to evacuate by the end of July.
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Duration: 4'12"

17:22
Evening Business for 26 February 2015
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News from the business sector including a market report.
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Duration: 2'35"

17:25
Kim Dotcom wants money for rent and groceries
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The Crown says it's time for Kim Dotcom to downsize his lavish lifestyle - starting with his mansion - after the internet businessman asked a court to release more of his money to pay the rent and buy groceries.
Topics: law
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Duration: 4'41"

17:30
Law Society says Davina Murray makes it harder
BODY:
The disgraced lawyer Davina Murray is appealing a decision to strike her off the lawyers register for smuggling contraband to a convicted murderer and rapist.
Topics: law
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Duration: 3'48"

17:40
Chair of the Remuneration Authority
BODY:
The pay of MPs is going up by five-point-five percent after the Remuneration Authority ignored the Prime Minister's request for a zero rise.
Topics: politics
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Duration: 4'59"

17:45
Queensland fruit fly count hits seven in Auckland
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Two more Queensland fruit flies have been found in Auckland, taking the total to seven. But DNA tests that show up the flies' similarities give weight to the theory this is still an isolated incursion.
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Duration: 1'55"

17:47
12-person panel to consider new flag
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A 12 person panel including a former All Black and an Olympian, has been set up to consult with the public about possibly changing the country's flag.
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Tags: New Zealand Flag
Duration: 2'13"

17:50
Moves to stop further Christchurch asset sales fail
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The attempt of some Christchurch City Councillors to stop more of the city's assets being sold has failed. The city is now suggesting it sell $750 million of assets, to fund a o$1.2 billion budget shortfall.
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Duration: 4'10"

17:54
Māori Minister surprised at range of hui topics
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The Minister for Māori development, Te Ururoa Flavell, says he's surprised planned changes to laws covering Māori land and the language have not been the focus of his nationwide hui.
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Duration: 3'03"

17:57
$25m bid for urgent Dunedin hospital fixes
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The Southern district health board is making a bid for $25 million for urgent work to repair Dunedin hospital. The existing Clinical Services Building is no longer fit for purpose and the DHB's been told it would need up to 50-million-dollars spent on it to keep it running for a decade more.
Topics: health
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Tags: hospitals
Duration: 2'59"

18:07
Sports News for 26 February 2015
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An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
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Duration: 3'14"

18:12
Team NZ says waiting to hear whether Dean Barker stays
BODY:
Dean Barker's been supplanted after 15 years as Team New Zealand skipper for the next America's Cup, and has yet to take up a new job offer. He's helmed every race for New Zealand since the final winning clash in 2000, and team boss Grant Dalton wants him back as Performance Manager and Sailing Coach.
Topics: sport
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Tags: yachting, Team New Zealand
Duration: 5'06"

18:17
Burling's father creates powerhouse of NZ yachting
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Peter Burling, the new co helmsman of Team New Zealand for the America's Cup, is the star turn of a club that is to yachting what Canterbury is to rugby. The Tauranga yacht club has six of its young members among the 14 in the New Zealand sailing team.
Topics: sport
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Tags: yachting
Duration: 4'03"

18:24
Man fears for family kidnapped by Islamic State
BODY:
An Assyrian human rights activist has spoken of his horror and fear for the hundreds of Christian hostages taken by Islamic State in Syria.
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Duration: 4'40"

18:28
Shoppers say they're being ripped off by Aussie chain stores
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Some shoppers say they're being ripped off by Australian chain stores whIch aren't keeping up with the strong Kiwi dollar. The New Zealand dollar has been sitting at around 96 Australian cents for the past fortnight and some economists say its going to go higher.
Topics: economy
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Duration: 2'50"

18:36
Amber Lundy tried to flee her parents bedroom
BODY:
The crown says 7-year old Amber Lundy was trying to flee her parents' bedroom when she was hit by a tomahawk-like instrument, and killed. Her father, Mark Lundy is on trial in the High Court in Wellington accused of murdering his wife Christine and their daughter in August 2000.
Topics: law, crime
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Duration: 2'47"

18:39
Council to meet with Bay of Islands residents over landslide
BODY:
Bay of Island pensioner with a terminal illness is furious he found out by letter that a landslide is forcing him and his wife out of their home. The Far North District Council has written to the owners of three properties at Hihitahi Rise and Te Haumi Drive in Paihia telling them to evacuate by the end of July.
Topics:
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Duration: 4'24"

18:44
Prison staff treat lawyers differently after lawyer struck off
BODY:
The actions of the disgraced former lawyer Davina Murray have changed the way lawyers are treated by prison staff. Ms Murray was struck off today by the Lawyers and Conveyances Disciplinary Tribunal, despite not showing up to the hearing.
Topics: law, crime
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Duration: 3'14"

18:46
Truck driver's view was blocked
BODY:
A truck driver who caused the death of a young Christchurch cyclist could not see clearly out of the passenger's window, a coroner has found. 22-year-old Sharla Phyllis Haerewa was killed in April last year as she biked to Christchurch Hospital early in the morning. Truck driver John Herridge made a left-hand turn on Lincoln Rd and drove into the student nurse's path. Miss Haerewa was dragged under the truck and died at the scene.
Topics: law, transport
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Duration: 2'04"

18:51
Te Manu Korihi News for 26 February 2015
BODY:
The Minister for Māori development, Te Ururoa Flavell ,says he's surprised planned changes to laws covering Māori land and the language have not been the focus of his nationwide hui; Also speaking at the hui was the Māori food researcher and caterer, Joe McLeod; The Ngai Tahu academic, Hana O'Regan, is on the twelve-person panel set up to get the public's view on whether New Zealand should get a new flag - and also find out what it should look like; The media funding body, NZ On Air and Porirua City are joining forces with a scheme to encourage local musicians to film their videos outside the main centres.
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Duration: 3'38"

18:55
Today In Parliament for 26 February 2015 - evening edition
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Primary Industries Minister Nathan Guy faces questions from Labour's Damien O'Connor. NZ on Air bosses front up before Commerce Committee.
Topics: politics
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Duration: 5'08"

=SHOW NOTES=

===7:06 PM. | Nights===
=DESCRIPTION=

Entertainment and information, including: 7:30 At the Movies with Simon Morris: Current film releases and film related topics (RNZ) 8:13 Windows on the World: International public radio features and documentaries 9:06 Our Changing World: Science and environment news from NZ and the world (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

19:10
What type of universe is this?
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Why the universe is something, rather than nothing, with Prof. Lawrence Krauss, director of the Origins Project at the School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
Topics: science
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Tags: universe, cosmology, something, nothing
Duration: 23'53"

20:42
Video games
BODY:
Joystick ninja and GamePlanet editor Matt Maguire solves the riddles, beats the bad guys and saves the Earth countless times on a myriad of gaming platforms. How game development is financed by creators, and how some newer methods of revenue gathering by studios have proven unpopular with gamers recently.
Topics: arts, business, education, internet, life and society, technology
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Tags: video games, computer games, pre-ordering, Kickstarter, Early Access
Duration: 14'20"

20:59
Conundrum Clue 7
BODY:
Listen on Friday for the answer.
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Duration: 18"

21:59
Conundrum Clue 8
BODY:
Listen on Friday for the answer.
Topics:
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Duration: 17"

=SHOW NOTES=

7:10 What type of universe is this?
Why the universe is something, rather than nothing, with Prof. Lawrence Krauss, director of the Origins Project at the School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
7:30 At the Movies

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

19:30
At The Movies for 26 February 2015
BODY:
On At The Movies, Simon Morris looks back at the Oscars, and the future of Hollywood films. He reviews Jupiter Ascending and The Interview, and has a rare look at some plays being screened at our cinemas - like A Streetcar Named Desire and Treasure Island.
EXTENDED BODY:
Simon Morris looks back at the Oscars, and the future of Hollywood films.
He reviews Jupiter Ascending and The Interview, and has a rare look at some plays being screened at our cinemas - like A Streetcar Named Desire and Treasure Island.

Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film, Oscars, Jupiter Ascending, The Interview, A Streetcar Named Desire, Treasure Island
Duration: 23'53"

7:30 At the Movies
Films and movie business with Simon Morris.
8:10 Windows on the World
International public radio documentaries - visit the Windows on the World web page to find links to these documentaries.
8:40 Video games
Joystick ninja and GamePlanet editor Matt Maguire solves the riddles, beats the bad guys and saves the Earth countless times on a myriad of gaming platforms. How game development is financed by creators, and how some newer methods of revenue gathering by studios have proven unpopular with gamers recently.
9:06 Our Changing World

=SHOW NOTES=

Coming Up on Our Changing World on Thursday 5 March
Seaweek stories on rig sharks and eagle rays, e-cigarettes, and Te Punaha Matatini, a Centre of Research Excellence focusing on complex systems.

=AUDIO=

21:06
Time Travelling through Mead Stream Gorge
BODY:
A fieldtrip through Mead Stream Gorge, north of Kaikoura, which provides a continuous record of 80 million years of geological history.
EXTENDED BODY:
by Veronika Meduna
'In this area, the gorge cuts through a sequence of rocks that span the entire geological history of New Zealand from about 90 million years ago right through to the present day.' _James Crampton

Mead Stream Gorge, about halfway between Blenheim and Kaikoura, is one of New Zealand’s geological wonderlands.
Geologists come from all over the globe to study the exposed rocks and the gorge is possibly the only place in New Zealand where you can travel through 90 million years of geological history in one day.
Geologists and paleontologists from GNS Science have led field work in the gorge for several decades, working closely with the Murray family, who own Bluff Station inland from Kekerengu on the Marlborough coast.
Paleontologist James Crampton says the gorge is one of the most accessible in the region, but also represents the most continuous geological record, spanning from the slow drowning of the Zealandia landmass following its split from Gondwana, through the geological boundary that marks the demise of the dinosaurs, and on to a period of mountain uplift that continues today.
'The rocks lowest down are from a time when there was still tectonic movement going on and New Zealand was breaking off Gondwana, splitting away and drifting into the South Pacific by continental drift. Then, for a long time there was no tectonic activity and New Zealand gradually sank.'

Further up the gorge a layer of huge boulders provides evidence for the start of a new tectonic phase and mountain uplift when the Alpine Fault formed, about 25 to 35 million years, and finally, right at the top of the gorge, is the active Clarence Fault, one of the country’s fastest moving faults.
One of the significant – albeit perhaps least obvious – sightseeing stops in the gorge is the geological boundary layer that marks the end of the Cretaceous epoch and the extinction of the dinosaurs, together with about half of all other creatures that lived at the time.
It was the second largest extinction event of all times, but all that remains of it today is a thin dark sliver of clay, measuring a few centimetres, that marks the moment when a meteorite hit Earth and covered the planet in dust. This layer is commonly known as the K-T boundary (T stands for the Tertiary, and K comes from Kreidezeit, the German term for the Cretaceous).
Chris Hollis, at GNS Science, says the K-T boundary at Mead Stream was very difficult to pinpoint, and represents one of only two places in the world with an unusual signature of the meteorite impact. Two types of evidence usually identify the boundary: a high level of Iridium (an element that is extremely rare in the Earth’s crust, but abundant in most asteroids and comets) and the sudden extinction of microscopic organisms called foraminifera, or forams for short. “This Iridium anomaly in this case is found only in the burrows in the top of the Cretaceous,” he says.
'What’s happened is that the meteroite hit the Earth, the dust cloud enveloped the planet, the Iridium-rich clay settled down through the oceans, fell on the seafloor, filled the burrows and all the things inside the burrows died. Then it was swept clean by some current, possible a tsunami from the impact that swept the surface clean so there’s only normal clay deposited afterwards and all the Iridium, all the evidence of the impact, is actually in the burrows in the top of the Cretaceous.' _Chris Hollis

Further up the gorge, a layer of conglomerates – rocks that are made of lots of cobbles and pebbles – signify the beginning of a new period of tectonic activity and mountain uplift. James Crampton says this marks the instant when the modern plate boundary and mountain uplift started in this area. “Tectonic activity suddenly switched on here, mountains started going up really fast and eroding, and all this gravel was falling into deep water off the edge of the mountains – exactly what’s still happening off Kaikoura today with the Kaikoura Canyon.”
Right at the top, GNS Science earthquake geologist Russ van Dissen studies the Clarence Fault, one of a cluster of active faults that branch off the Alpine Fault and trend northeast through Marlborough and towards the North Island. “It’s one of the four big faults of the Marlborough fault system,” he says. “This fault zone transfers the motion from the subduction zone in the North Island, and as we move south these four faults distribute the strain and then all that gets dumped down onto the Alpine Fault further to the south and on the west coast of the South Island.”
The Clarence Fault moves about five millimetres per year and is one of several fault lines Russ van Dissen studies in an effort to piece together the region’s earthquake history. He says the Clarence Fault has produced large earthquakes in the past, on average every 2000 years, with the last one about 1700 years ago. “If we do that for all major faults … that all gets put into the building code. One of the outcomes of the work we’re doing here is how to prescribe the appropriate earthquake loadings for buildings.”
The team also explored a layer that represents the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, or PETM. During this episode, some 55 million years ago, the Earth warmed rapidly and went through a major climate change and extinction event. Our Changing World will feature this part of the research next month.
Topics: science
Regions: Marlborough
Tags: geology, K/T boundary, dinosaurs, Gondwana, Zealandia, Clarence Fault
Duration: 19'43"

21:20
Unlocking the Secrets of Photosynthesis
BODY:
Learning the complex secrets of photosynthesis could lead to improved solar panels, efficient ways of producing hydrogen from water and more productive plants
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“From my perspective plants are machines that capture light. And they’re able to take light energy and turn it into chemical energy, and use that process to extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and generate sugars. So leaves are factories turning solar energy into food.” Julian Eaton-Rye

Biochemist Julian Eaton-Rye, from the University of Otago, is fascinated by the process of photosynthesis, and in awe of plants’ ability to do things like split water.
Julian’s work focuses on the water splitting process, which happens in Photosystem II, near the beginning of photosynthesis. “What’s remarkable about that process,” says Julian,” Is that if you want to do that yourself, you’re going to have to heat it up to about 2000 degrees Centigrade, because you’re breaking it apart – and water is phenomenally stable. So to break it apart is a thermodynamic challenge, and Photosystem 2, this first step in photosynthesis, has evolved just once in evolution – about 2.5 billion years ago – to split water and use this abundant source of material as a fuel source to drive the biosphere.”
Julian uses the cyanobacterium Synechocystis as his model plant, and his research focuses on proteins and how they are constantly broken and repaired.
“The chemistry of Photosystem 2 is so challenging that it actually damages the enzymes as it operates normally,” says Julian. “So there’s this cost, that to use this wonderful source of energy the protein structure actually damages itself and needs to be repaired.”
Julian believes that if we can understand how this protein repair mechanism works, it could lead, for example, to more efficient photovoltaic panels – at the moment these have a limited life, but Julian believes it should be possible to greatly extend this.
Another result of understanding the water splitting process could be the creation of low temperature water-splitting technology to produce hydrogen as a source of fuel. Modifying plants so they can better survive in arid environments, or hot and cold environments, is another possible outcome that could lead to better food production.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: photosynthesis, water, solar energy, photovoltaic panels, hydrogen, cyanobacteria
Duration: 15'16"

21:34
Using a Scanning Electron Microscope
BODY:
A scanning electron microscope uses a focused beam of electrons to produce images and Ruth Knibbe demonstrates how it works
EXTENDED BODY:
Materials engineer Dr Ruth Knibbe uses a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to image her own samples and samples for other scientists. Unlike a light microscope, an SEM uses a focused beam of electrons to produce images from the top surface of a sample. “So you don’t get lots of information from the bulk of your sample, it’s mostly topography that you’re getting information from,” says Knibbe, from Victoria University of Wellington.
Gallery: larger versions of these SEM images.
An SEM can also be used to extract analytical information. “So you can also find out what atoms…or what elements you have in your sample,” she says. For example, whether a sample contains iron or oxygen.
The electron beams in an SEM come down a column, and when it hits the sample will either release secondary electrons or back-scatter electrons. Secondary electrons provide information about the topography of a sample, and the back-scatter electrons provide information about the composition of the sample, otherwise known as atomic number contrast.
The electron beam in an SEM is very finely controlled, and starts in the top left hand corner and moves quickly across the sample in a rastering format. Electrons from that particular area are detected which creates a signal.
“That’s why we call it a scanning electron microscopy detector…because you’re actually scanning across that surface,” says Knibbe.

So unlike a light microscope where the entire sample is saturated immediately, an SEM scans across a sample and every location gives a slightly different signal.
Samples generally need to be conducting, so non-conductive samples such as geological or biological samples are coated with a metal or carbon. “If you have an insulator, it would just flare up and charge and you just see lots of bright white. Not so interesting,” says Knibbe.
Samples are loaded onto circular stubs which have a pin underneath which can be tightened into the microscope with an Allen key. “You don’t want your sample to be moving when it’s in the microscope,” says Knibbe. “If it’s moving in the microscope and you’re imaging it 100,000s of times, you’re not going to see very much at all.”
Different scientists use an SEM for different purposes. “[Biologists] would use this microscope because you can get that high detailed topography information,” says Knibbe. Another big benefit of a scanning electron microscope for all types of scientists, as compared with a light microscope, is the huge depth of field which gives SEM images their characteristic, almost 3D-like, quality.
You can listen to an extended version of using a scanning electron microscope here:
You can listen to the on-air version of the scanning electron microscope story below:
Topics: science, technology
Regions:
Tags: microscope, electrons, images, superconducting samples
Duration: 12'49"

21:46
New Zealand Dotterels on Great Barrier Island
BODY:
Botanist and bird watcher John Ogden is passionate about making Great Barrier Island pest-free - and keeping an eye on his local shorebirds
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“So the problem is one of getting the community behind the eradication effort, and they would have to be 100% behind it. And if that was the case I think it would be possible. Expensive. But possible.” Botanist and island resident John Ogden on the idea of eradicating pests from Great Barrier Island.

The story of Awana Bay’s family of New Zealand dotterels is worthy of a TV soap opera. Retired botanist John Ogden lives nearby on Great Barrier Island and he has been watching the saga of the dotterel pair unfold all summer. First of all, as he tells it, the pair laid an egg in a scrape on the beach just above the high tide mark. Someone else noticed it and reported it to John but by the time he went to investigate the egg had been abandoned. John thinks the person got to close to the nest and scared the parents away, leaving the egg exposed to the hot sun.
The dutiful pair then renested nearby, and then, says John “And this is most remarkable and unbelievable thing. And it’s true. A pair of oystercatchers took over the second nest, and began to incubate the dotterel egg.” Meanwhile the dotterels returned to their original nest and laid another egg, alongside the original dud egg. Then just before Christmas a storm washed away both nests. However after the storm someone saw a dotterel chick on the beach near the estuary, and although John never found it he thinks the second dotterel egg must have hatched just before the storm hit.
The pair of dotterels then nested again, and by early January had a third nest with three eggs in it. John was keeping an eye on it and then just before the eggs were due to hatch there were four very high tides in succession. One tide even lapped around the nest, until finally strong southerly winds combined with another high tide finally washed the nest away. John thought that was the end of the pair’s breeding hopes, until the day before Alison Ballance joins him for a walk, when he notices a tiny dotterel chick running about. John says it must have hatched between the two last high tides, but the other eggs weren’t so fortunate.
As well as carrying out counts of New Zealand dotterels around all the beaches on Great Barrier Island, John, who used to work at the University of Auckland, also monitors his local population of pateke or brown teal, and is still involved in research into vegetation succession on the island following disturbances such as fire.
For many years he was Chairperson of the Great Barrier Island Environmental Trust, and he has been advocating to make Great Barrier Island pest-free. Great Barrier Island, which lies 100 kilometres from central Auckalnd, on the eastern side of the Hauraki Gulf, has ship rats, mice, pigs, rabbits and feral cats, but it does not have possums, hedgehogs or mustelids. Although he says it would be expensive to rid the 285-square kilometre island of pests, John says it is technically possible. The biggest challenge is to get the island’s population, which numbers nearly 1000 people (some permanent residents plus off-island residents with holiday homes) to agree to the plan.

Topics: environment
Regions:
Tags: birds, shorebirds, New Zealand dotterels, Great Barrier Island, pest-free, weeds, predators
Duration: 13'34"

9:06 Our Changing World
Science and environment news from New Zealand and the world.
10:17 Late Edition
A review of the leading news from Morning Report, Nine to Noon, Afternoons and Checkpoint. Also hear the latest news from around the Pacific on Radio New Zealand International's Dateline Pacific.
11:06 Music 101 pocket edition
A contemporary music magazine with interviews and music from New Zealand and overseas artists, coverage of new releases, tours, live sessions, music festivals and events.

===10:00 PM. | Late Edition===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, including Dateline Pacific and the day's best interviews from Radio New Zealand National

===11:06 PM. | Music 101===
=DESCRIPTION=

Music, interviews, live performances, behind the scenes, industry issues, career profiles, new, back catalogue, undiscovered, greatest hits, tall tales - with a focus on NZ (RNZ)

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Year 2015

Reference number 274253

Media type AUDIO

Collection Sound Collection

Ngā Taonga Korero Collection

Credits Radio New Zealand National, Broadcaster

Duration 19:00:00

Date 26 Feb 2015