Radio New Zealand National. 2015-09-24. 00:00-23:59.

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A 24-hour recording of Radio New Zealand National. The following rundown is sourced from the broadcaster’s website. Note some overseas/copyright restricted items may not appear in the supplied rundown:

24 September 2015

===12:04 AM. | All Night Programme===
=DESCRIPTION=

Including: 12:05 Music after Midnight; 12:30 One in Five (RNZ); 1:05 Discovery (BBC); 2:05 The Thursday Feature: Playing Favourites (RNZ); 3:05 The Bestest Wedding, by John F Bragg (RNZ); 3:30 NZ Books (RNZ): 5:10 Witness (BBC); 5:45 The Day in Parliament

===6:00 AM. | Morning Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's three-hour breakfast news show with news and interviews, bulletins on the hour and half-hour

=AUDIO=

06:00
Top Stories for Thursday 24 September 2015
BODY:
Jailed journalists released by Egyptian President, New Zealand First still unimpressed by Red Peak, Xi Jinping: China open to foreign business, Legislation on verge of passing to put Red Peak on referendum, Cash-strapped farmers calling for an increase in Fonterra, Reverend defends failed climate change refugee, American drug company backs down on sharp increase, Vote today on whether to ban window washers, Could property prices in Auckland be startng to cool, and Chinese company wants to partner with Christchurch.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 31'57"

06:06
Sports News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'58"

06:10
Jailed journalists released by Egyptian President
BODY:
Two Al Jazeera journalists have been released from jail in Egypt. The journalists were among 100 people who received presidential pardons on the eve of the Muslim feast Eid Al-Adha. Kamahl Santa-maria works for Al Jazeera English and is based in Doha.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Egypt, Al Jazeera
Duration: 2'23"

06:20
Pacific News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
The latest from the Pacific region.
Topics: Pacific
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'51"

06:23
Morning Rural News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sector.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'11"

06:27
Te Manu Korihi News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
Maori claimants from the North have asked the Waitangi Tribunal to spell out its position on sovereignty - and who holds it now; An author of a study into Maori beliefs about wealth and poverty has conceded its interpretation of Maori values may not have been spot on; The Maori Party is organising cross-party support for a Far North Trust at risk of being penalised for helping whanau own their own homes; The Medical Council is calling on doctors to work in partnership with Maori doctors to address issues of inequality tangata whenua face in the health system.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'28"

06:39
New Zealand First still unimpressed by Red Peak
BODY:
While some are celebrating the addition of the Red Peak design into the November flag referendum, others are less than impressed. Ron Mark is the deputy leader of New Zealand First.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag
Duration: 2'57"

06:43
Xi Jinping: China open to foreign business
BODY:
The Chinese president, Xi Jinping, is insisting that foreign companies are welcome in his country as China continues to open up its economy. Simon Marks is our US correspondent.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: China, Chinese economy, USA
Duration: 3'05"

06:48
Property investors confidence wains in latest Colliers survey
BODY:
Commercial property investors are the latest group to show a significant fall in confidence, with their mood taking its biggest hit in seven years.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: commercial property
Duration: 1'08"

06:49
DNZ still confident and comfortable with property outlook
BODY:
One company that's comfortable with the state of the commercial property market and its own outlook is DNZ Property, soon to become Stride Property.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: commercial property
Duration: 1'02"

06:50
Z Energy's bid for Chevron looks more profitable than expected
BODY:
Z Energy shares hit an all time high yesterday, after saying it expects its takeover of Chevron's Caltex business will lift earnings by more than it thought, while costs will be lower.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Z Energy, Caltex
Duration: 1'15"

06:52
Uber NZ marks one-millionth ride: sees more growth potential
BODY:
Alternative taxi service provider Uber is marking its one-millionth ride in New Zealand this week, after just over a year of running taxis in Auckland and Wellington.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Uber taxis
Duration: 1'50"

06:56
UK, China, look to link their stock markets
BODY:
The British finance minister, George Osborne, says the UK and China are exploring how to link their stock markets.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: UK, China
Duration: 1'13"

06:57
Shares in Volkswagen rebound slightly
BODY:
Shares in the troubled Volkswagen have rebounded slightly following the resignation of the German car maker's chief executive, Martin Winterkorn.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Volkswagen, emissions
Duration: 1'15"

06:59
Morning Markets for 24 September 2015
BODY:
On Wall St stocks are mixed as tepid US factory growth and China's worst manufacturing contraction since the global financial crisis weighed on investors.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 1'18"

07:06
Sports News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'30"

07:10
Legislation on verge of passing to put Red Peak on referendum
BODY:
After days of political manoeuvering Red Peak is on the verge of becoming a fifth option in November's flag referendum. Political editor Jane Patterson reports.
Topics: politics, law
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag, referendum, flag referendum
Duration: 3'48"

07:14
Social media boosted Red Peak but not everyone on board
BODY:
Vocal support for the Red Peak design on social media culminated in a 50,000 strong petition calling for it to be included in the referendum. Reporter Mohamed Hassan took to Auckland streets to test whether support for the design is broad based or merely a storm in a tweet up.
Topics: politics, law
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag, referendum, flag referendum
Duration: 1'04"

07:18
Cash-strapped farmers calling for an increase in Fonterra
BODY:
Fonterra is under pressure to raise the milk payout to cash strapped farmers when it announces its annual results this morning but some warn the market is still too volatile.
Topics: business, economy, farming
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra, global dairy prices
Duration: 4'08"

07:22
Reverend defends failed climate change refugee
BODY:
The Auckland market gardener who sacked would-be climate change refugee Ioane Teitiota says he felt betrayed by the man he once supported and urged the government to deport him. Reverend Iosefa Suamalie has been advocating for Ioane Teitiota.
Topics: refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Ioane Teitiota, Kiribati
Duration: 3'57"

07:27
American drug company backs down on sharp increase
BODY:
The American drug company that faced a backlash after raising the price of a drug AIDS patients amongst others use by more than 5000% is now saying the increase won't be as steep.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: Daraprim, Turing Pharmaceuticals, medication
Duration: 5'28"

07:36
Vote today on whether to ban window washers
BODY:
The Christchurch City Council will today vote on whether to ban window washers at busy intersections. Conan Young reports.
Topics:
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: Christchurch City Council, window washers
Duration: 2'55"

07:39
Could property prices in Auckland be startng to cool
BODY:
Is Auckland's overheated property market finally showing signs of cooling? Auckland Property Investors Association's David Whitburn doesn't think so.
Topics: housing, economy
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Auckland property
Duration: 5'08"

07:43
Chinese company wants to partner with Christchurch
BODY:
A massive Chinese company is looking to invest up to three billion dollars in the Christchurch city rebuild it was revealed yesterday.
Topics:
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: Christchurch city rebuild, China
Duration: 2'37"

07:49
Minister offers hope for Far North housing trust
BODY:
Community and Voluntary Sector minister Jo Goodhew is reassuring a Northland trust helping families to own their own homes should be able to continue operating as usual.
Topics:
Regions: Northland
Tags: He Korowai Trust, charity, homelessness
Duration: 3'06"

07:52
Meth makers move onto roads
BODY:
It sounds like something from the dark television crime drama Breaking Bad, but meth clean-up companies say P labs are now on New Zealand's roads.
Topics: crime
Regions:
Tags: methamphetamine, drug manufacturing, P labs
Duration: 3'28"

07:56
Judge rules "Happy Birthday to You" free of copyright
BODY:
A judge in the United States has ruled the lyrics to the most recognised song in the English language, "Happy Birthday to You" are no longer protected by copyright.
EXTENDED BODY:
The company collecting royalties to Happy Birthday To You does not hold a valid copyright to the song, a US federal judge has ruled.
Warner/Chappell acquired the copyright - which was originally filed in 1935 - in 1988.
But judge George King ruled the original copyright was only granted for specific arrangements of the music, not the song itself.
The tune was composed by two Kentucky sisters in 1893.
Mildred and Patty Hill called their version Good Morning To All, which later evolved into the version popular at birthday parties worldwide.
The case against Warner/Chappell was launched in 2013 by Rupa Marya and Robert Siegel, who are making a film about the song.
The music publisher asked for $US1500 for the right to use Happy Birthday To You in the film.
Ms Marya and Mr Siegel argued the song was in the public domain and should not be subject to copyright fees.
Judge King ruled Summy had never acquired copyright to the song's words.
"The Hill sisters gave Summy Co the rights to the melody, and the rights to piano arrangements based on the melody but never any rights to the lyrics," he said.
The rights to the song were eventually purchased by Warner/Chappell for $US25 million when they bought a successor company to Summy in the 1980s.
Warner/Chappell has made around $US2m a year from royalty payments whenever the song is used in a film, television episode, advertisement or other public performance.
"We are looking at the court's lengthy opinion and considering our options," Warner/Chappell said, after the ruling was announced.
- BBC
Morning Report host Susie Furguson talks to lawyer Mark Rifkin about the legal stoush.
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags: copyright, Happy Birthday song
Duration: 3'23"

08:06
Sports News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'01"

08:10
National U-turns on Red Peak
BODY:
The Red Peak design will be the fifth option in November's referendum to select an alternative flag after yesterday's U turn by the Prime Minister John Key. James Shaw is the Green Party co-leader.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag, flag referendum
Duration: 4'38"

08:16
Drugs, orgies and parties on table for international rugby
BODY:
A Samoan rugby player is warning talented Polynesian teenagers signing international contracts should brace themselves for world quite different from the Islands.
Topics: Pacific, sport, life and society
Regions:
Tags: rugby, international rugby
Duration: 3'25"

08:19
Shearer agrees with PM on treatment of NZers in Australia
BODY:
More details of the increasing number of New Zealanders being locked up in Australian detention centres are continuing to emerge. Labour's foreign affairs spokesman David Shearer joins Morning Report.
Topics: refugees and migrants
Regions:
Tags: Australia, Australian detention centres
Duration: 4'43"

08:25
Calls for government to buy electric cars for its fleet
BODY:
Former Prime Minister Jim Bolger is calling for the Government to set an example by buying electric cars for its vehicle fleet.
Topics: politics, environment, transport
Regions:
Tags: electric cars
Duration: 3'20"

08:28
Collateral damage a probablilty of brightline test
BODY:
A raft of new measures designed to cool the Auckland property market take effect next week. Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand top tax expert Peter Vial is one of those saying the new measure is a blunt instrument.
Topics: housing, economy, law
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Auckland property market
Duration: 3'57"

08:39
Turing pharmaceuticals backs down from dramatic price hike
BODY:
The head of Turing pharmaceuticals has backed down from plans to dramatically raise the price of a 62-year-old drug used by AIDS patients. Peter Maybarduk works on public access to drugs issues with the "Public Citizen" lobby group in Washington, D.C.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: Turing Pharmaceuticals, medication, pharmaceuticals
Duration: 4'01"

08:41
Early bolter in Auckland mayoral contest
BODY:
The race for the Auckland mayoralty is officially underway with a one-time National Party parliamentary candidate Mark Thomas deciding to run next year.
Topics: politics
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Auckland mayoralty
Duration: 2'55"

08:44
Speculation over Phil Goff's plan to stand for Mayor
BODY:
Speculation over Phil Goff's plan to stand for Mayor has been growing, he speaks with Guyon Espiner.
Topics: politics
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Auckland mayoralty
Duration: 2'20"

08:47
Fonterra releases annual results
BODY:
New Zealand's largest company, Fonterra, has tripled its annual profit. Economics correspondent Patrick O'Meara has been looking at the numbers.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra
Duration: 4'13"

08:51
News conference from Hamilton Zoo
BODY:
City Council officials have briefed reporters on the death of zoo keeper Samantha Kudeweh. Reporter Andrew McRae was at the briefing.
Topics:
Regions: Waikato
Tags: Hamilton zoo
Duration: 1'31"

08:53
Te Manu Korihi News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
An author of a study into Maori beliefs about wealth and poverty has conceded its interpretation of Maori values may not have been spot on; Maori claimants from the North have asked the Waitangi Tribunal to spell out its position on sovereignty - and who holds it now; The Maori Party is organising cross-party support for a Far North Trust at risk of being penalised for helping whanau own their own homes; The Medical Council is calling on doctors to work in partnership with Maori doctors to address issues of inequality tangata whenua face in the health system.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'32"

08:56
World of Wearable Arts kicks off
BODY:
Reporter Max Towle went along to the preview night for the World of Wearable Arts.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: fashion, World of Wearable Arts, design
Duration: 2'50"

=SHOW NOTES=

===9:06 AM. | Nine To Noon===
=DESCRIPTION=

Current affairs and topics of interest, including:
10:45 The Reading: The Phoenix Song, by John Sinclair, told by Katlyn Wong (F, RNZ)

=AUDIO=

09:08
Overhaul for Child Youth and Family
BODY:
The Minister of Social Development Anne Tolley discusses the interim expert panel report for transforming Child Youth and Family. The report recommends a major overhaul of Child Youth and Family, to achieve much better tracking of children in state care, and more contracting out to other organisations. It follows an August report, by the Children's Commissioner which found systemic failures in CYF, and said it was doubtful children were better off in state care.
Topics: politics, law, life and society
Regions:
Tags: Child Youth and Family, CYF, state care, children, social work
Duration: 18'21"

09:27
The shape of China's economy & why it matters
BODY:
As China's President Xi Jinping makes his first state visit to the U.S. the fate of the world's second largest economy has never seemed more important. China has been flirting with recession for months - but there are some signs of hope. Peter Churchouse is a Hong Kong-based, New Zealand finance and investment expert with more than 35 years' experience working in the Asian investment sector. Peter Churchouse set up Morgan Stanley's first Asian office and worked there for 16 years in several senior roles.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: China, USA, Chinese economy
Duration: 12'47"

09:40
Solar storms and the electricity network
BODY:
In March 1989 a solar storm caused the collapse of an electric power grid in Canada, which plunged 9 million people into an electricity blackout. Solar activity and winds are closely monitored because of the potential danger they pose to technology. Physicist Craig Rodger from Otago University is leading New Zealand research into reducing the possible damage to electricity infrastructure from very large geomagnetic storms.
Topics: technology, energy, science
Regions:
Tags: solar storm, solar tsunami, electricity grid, Craig Rodger, geomagnetic storms
Duration: 11'03"

09:50
UK correspondent Kate Adie
BODY:
The war of words between David Cameron and Lord Ashcroft, and Jeremy Corbyn's initiation as leader.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: UK
Duration: 8'09"

10:08
Bringing back power to the people. Can civic duty ever be sexy?
BODY:
What does it mean to be a good citizen and why does it matter? Eric Liu is the Founder of Citizen University an organisation that promotes and teaches good citizenship. He wants to re-imagine civics as the teaching of power, and help communities re-frame what's possible in politics. Eric Liu comes to New Zealand on October 3rd and will be a speaker at TEDx Christchurch.
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: civic duty, citizenship, community
Duration: 32'49"

10:42
Book Review: The Dressmaker by Rosalie Ham
BODY:
Reviewed by Gina Rogers, published by Macmillan.
Topics: books
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'54"

11:10
New Technology with Sarah Putt
BODY:
Sarah Putt looks at Online voting, Data driven TV shows and asks if iPads are bad for toddlers.
Topics: technology
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 16'17"

11:26
Parenting - Anxiety in children
BODY:
Dr Kaylene Henderson is an Australian child psychiatrist, parenting specialist and mother of three. Dr Henderson has created the research-based online course series for parents called 'Raising Good Kids: Managing Behaviour and Emotions in 0-5's' and a corresponding course series for early childhood professionals.
EXTENDED BODY:
Dr Kaylene Henderson is an Australian child psychiatrist, parenting specialist and mother of three.
She has created the research-based online course series for parents called Raising Good Kids: Managing Behaviour and Emotions in 0-5's and a corresponding course series for early childhood professionals.
Dr Henderson discusses what causes anxiety in children and shares some strategies for addressing it.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: Dr Kaylene Henderson, anxiety, anxious children, parenting
Duration: 6'13"

11:48
Film review with Dan Slevin
BODY:
SICARIO, IRIS and an introduction to RNZ's new film and home video programme for the web.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film
Duration: 11'13"

=SHOW NOTES=

09:05 Overhaul for Child Youth and Family
The Social Development Minister, Anne Tolley has just released the interim expert panel report for transforming CYF.
09:25 The shape of China's economy & why it matters
As China's President Xi Jinping makes his first state visit to the U.S. the fate of the world's second largest economy has never seemed more important. China has been flirting with recession for months - but there are some signs of hope. Peter Churchouse is a Hong Kong-based, New Zealand finance and investment expert with more than 35 years' experience working in the Asian investment sector. Peter Churchouse set up Morgan Stanley's first Asian office and worked there for 16 years in several senior roles.
09:30 Solar storms and the electricity network
While we're used to hearing about storms affecting infrastructure and electricity supplies, but solar storms or tsunamis also represent massive risks to electrical and technical systems. Solar storms occur when the sun hurls bursts of magnetic plasma into space which can compress, disturb earth's magnetic field and set off interactions with currents in conductors, wires and transformers. In March 1989 a solar storm caused the collapse of an electric power grid in Canada, which plunged 9 million people into an electricity blackout. Solar activity and winds are closely monitored because of the potential danger they pose to technology. Physicist Craig Rodger from Otago University is leading New Zealand research into reducing the possible damage to electricity infrastructure from very large geomagnetic storms.
[gallery:1437]
09:45 UK correspondent Kate Adie
10:05 Bringing back power to the people. Can civic duty ever be sexy?
What does it mean to be a good citizen and why does it matter? Eric Liu is the Founder of Citizen University an organisation that promotes and teaches good citizenship. He wants to re-imagine civics as the teaching of power, and help communities re-frame what's possible in politics.
Eric Liu is the author of several books including 'A Chinaman's Chance', 'The Gardens of Democracy' and 'True Patriot'. He was a White House speechwriter and policy adviser for President Bill Clinton. He was recently appointed by President Obama to the Board of the Corporation for National and Community Service. Eric Liu comes to New Zealand on October 3rd and will be a speaker at TEDx Christchurch.
[image:48480:full]
10:30 Book Review: The Dressmaker by Rosalie Ham
Reviewed by Gina Rogers, published by Macmillan
10:45 The Reading: The Phoenix Song by John Sinclair, told by Kat Wong (Part 12 of 12)
11:05 New Technology with Sarah Putt
Sarah Putt looks at Online voting, Data driven TV shows and asks if iPads are bad for toddlers.
11:30 Parenting - Anxiety in children
Dr Kaylene Henderson is an Australian child psychiatrist, parenting specialist and mother of three. Dr Henderson has created the research-based online course series for parents called 'Raising Good Kids: Managing Behaviour and Emotions in 0-5's' and a corresponding course series for early childhood professionals.
11:45 Film review with Dan Slevin
Dan discusses Sicario and Iris.
Playlist
Artist: Andrew Keoghan
Song: Bright Idea
Composer: Keoghan
Album: Arctic Tales Divide
Label: Brave Beluga
Time: 10:06am
Artist: The Beatles
Song: Across the Universe
Composer: Lennon / McCartney
Album: Let it Be
Label: Apple
Time: 11.06am

===Noon | Midday Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, followed by updates and reports until 1.00pm, including: 12:16 Business News 12:26 Sport 12:34 Rural News 12:43 Worldwatch

=AUDIO=

12:00
Midday News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
Fonterra's profit triples but many farmers will still run at a loss this year and Parliament adds Red Peak to the flag referendum
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 15'04"

12:17
Fonterra lifts annual profit
BODY:
The country's biggest company -- dairy giant, Fonterra, says it will need to keep a tight rein on its finances to stay competitive.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra
Duration: 1'39"

12:19
Bright spots for dairy farmers on horizon - economist
BODY:
The rise in Fonterra's annual profit and its increased forecast payout will help to lift some of the gloom that's descended on the industry, which has just been through its toughest season in six years.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'11"

12:20
Trade deficit widens in August
BODY:
The annual trade deficit has hit its highest level in more than six years. Official figures show imports exceeded exports to the tune of 3-point-3 billion dollars in the year to August, the largest shortfall since April 2009.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: exports
Duration: 1'24"

12:21
Uber carries its millionth passenger, looks to rules review
BODY:
The alternative taxi service, Uber, is carrying its one-millionth passenger this week, just 18 months after it started operating in Auckland and Wellington.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Uber
Duration: 59"

12:23
Midday Markets for 24 September 2015
BODY:
For the latest from the markets we're joined by Belinda Stanley at Craigs Investment Partners
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'31"

12:25
Business briefs
BODY:
DNZ Property Fund, which is changing its name to Stride Property, has resumed trading after it raised $115 million through the placement of new shares, as part of its financing of a supermarket property portfolio for $287 million.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: DNZ Property Fund
Duration: 28"

12:26
Midday Sports News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
The Wallabies coach Michael Cheika has dismissed any criticism of his side for not going for a bonus point try in their World Cup win over Fiji this morning.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'41"

12:35
Midday Rural News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sectors.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 7'56"

=SHOW NOTES=

===1:06 PM. | Jesse Mulligan, 1–4pm===
=DESCRIPTION=

An upbeat mix of the curious and the compelling, ranging from the stories of the day to the great questions of our time (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

13:10
First song
BODY:
Lorde and Disclosure - 'Magnets'
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'07"

13:15
Sugary Drinks Ban - Dr Anita Bell
BODY:
We speak to Dr Anita Bell about Waikato Hospital's prohibition of sugary drinks.
Topics: health
Regions: Waikato
Tags: Waikato Hospital, sugary drinks ban
Duration: 9'21"

13:24
Live Coronation Street - Simon Bennett
BODY:
The long-running soap, Coronation Street, was broadcast live last night - this morning New Zealand time. Eleven cameras on various sets shot the scenes live. And during the ad breaks, there was interaction with viewers on social media. When Corrie first aired, it was always broadcast live - as was always the case in TV back then. But could this new live interactive format be the future for soaps? We talk to Shortland Street's producer, Simon Bennett.
Topics: arts, media
Regions:
Tags: Coronation Street, live broadcast
Duration: 8'41"

13:33
Living Below The Line - Geoff Scott
BODY:
Auckland chef Geoff Scott is participating in the Living Below the Line challenge. Participants will live on $2.25 a day, the New Zealand equivalent of the global extreme poverty line, for all their food for five days. They are doing this in solidarity with the millions of human trafficking and slavery victims around the globe and raising money for TEAR Fund's anti-trafficking work in Southeast Asia.
Topics: food
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 7'55"

13:40
Favourite album
BODY:
Lucinda Williams - 'Lucinda Williams' (1988)
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 18'40"

14:06
Ruby Wax on mindfulness
BODY:
Ruby Wax is world-renowned as a comedian, celebrity interviewer, and script editor of the 1990s classic, Absolutely Fabulous. She has also got an OBE for her services to mental health and a master's degree in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from Oxford University. She is in New Zealand to address a conference of health professionals.
EXTENDED BODY:
Ruby Wax is world-renowned as a comedian, celebrity interviewer, and script editor of the 1990s classic Absolutely Fabulous. She also has an OBE for her services to mental health and a Master's degree in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from Oxford University.
Currently in New Zealand to address a conference of health professionals, Ruby Wax connects to Jesse Mulligan's "neural Wi-Fi" for a conversation about mindfulness and staying sane.
Topics: health, arts
Regions:
Tags: Ruby Wax, mental illness, APAC healthcare forum, mindfulness
Duration: 18'08"

14:26
Roadmap - Stratford
BODY:
Today on the roadmap we are going on a roadtrip 30 minutes out of New Plymouth to the South Taranaki town of Stratford. The town has 9000 residents, more than 70 streets inspired by Shakespeare and is close to the stunning mountain. It's been described as the gateway to the national park, Texas of the South and the Shakespearean centre of the antipodes.
Topics: history, life and society
Regions:
Tags: Stratford
Duration: 33'12"

15:08
The Expats - Claudia Batten
BODY:
Our expat this week is Claudia Batten, who lives and works in Los Angeles.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: expats
Duration: 13'28"

15:20
Masterpieces - Keith Quinn
BODY:
On Masterpieces today Keith Quinn talks about his all-time favourite All Blacks rugby match.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags: Keith Quinn, rugby
Duration: 10'07"

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 24 September 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 13'57"

21:45
Wildbase - a hospital dedicated to native wildlife
BODY:
At Wildbase, New Zealand's only dedicated wildlife hospital, vets treat more than 300 native animals each year as well as doing research on conservation issues.
EXTENDED BODY:
The birds that are in hospital here are the canaries in the coalmine for us. They are the ones telling us that there is something wrong going on in their wider environment.
Brett Gartrell, Massey University

Vets at Massey University’s Wildbase hospital, New Zealand’s only dedicated wildlife hospital, see about 300 patients each year. Most arrive as trauma victims following cat attacks, window strikes and collisions with cars. The vets’ job is to help their patients to return to the wild as quickly as possible, but the animals' injuries and diseases are sometimes also indicative of wider issues and become the starting point for research projects.
Wildbase director Brett Gartrell says operating on wildlife sometimes requires innovation and creativity, such as the use of a hypodermic needle and nail acrylic to fix a kiwi’s cracked bill tip.
“Kiwi do injure their bill quite a bit because they are probing around and looking in crevices and cracks.”
This big, male tuatara (above) was part of a translocation from Stevens Island, at the northern tip of the Marlborough Sounds, to the Cape Kidnappers sanctuary. Brett Gartrell says the tuatara was in a pen with many others, waiting to be released, but was outcompeted. “When he arrived, he was nothing but skin and bone. He’s been with us for a couple of months now. He was full of parasites, so as his body condition deteriorated, the parasite load increased.”
While the patient has now fully recovered, he will stay at the hospital until spring temperatures are warm enough for his release to stop him from going into a winter torpor. The reptile’s condition is also of interest for the team as part of a research project to study the possible impacts of climate change.
Stephanie Price, at Victoria University, is using translocations to places such as the Cape Kidnappers sanctuary, which is warmer than Stevens Island, to study how warmer temperatures influence the sex ratio of offspring and the general health of the populations. The ancient reptiles lay their eggs into a nest they dig into the ground. The temperature during incubation controls the sex of the hatchlings – with warmer temperatures producing more males. But warmer conditions could also provide an advantage for parasites.
Our previous research has shown that tuatara are very resistant to salmonella, unlike other reptiles. But in the move we have actually had a couple of the tuatara develop salmonella infections. It might be that in the colder climate, salmonella can’t get a foothold but as the tuatara are warming up, that puts them into the temperature range where the bacteria are more likely to create an infection.

That’s a worry for the future, says Brett, especially with tuatara “being left on small island reserves or mainland sanctuaries where they can’t move to adjust their temperatures”.
Parasite loading in native species that are going through translocations is also a research focus for resident vet Megan Jolly and postdoctoral fellow Zoe Grange – particularly in takahe.
Takahe were once thought to be extinct, but were rediscovered in 1948 in the remote Murchison Mountains in Fiordland. Even today, despite years of conservation effort, takahe remain critically endangered, with a population count of about 290 birds.
Megan studies a protozoan parasite called coccidia in takahe, which is an internal parasite that also shows up in other birds in captive breeding programmes or intense management conditions. The birds at the Burwood Bush takahe rearing unit have high counts of coccidia, and Megan says at least one takahe death is suspected to have been the result of high parasite loads.
Zoe’s focus is on two bacterial pathogens – salmonella and campylobacter. “We’ve collected samples to investigate bacterial loads in different populations of takahe. The birds are moved between places to avoid inbreeding but very little is known about what happens to the host-parasite relationship as a consequence of isolation and movement between populations.”
Zoe has developed a social network analysis – “a bit like facebook for takahe” – to explore connections between populations, and she found that breeding centres act as hubs for the bacteria.
When you’re moving a takahe from one population to a very distinct other location, this could be influencing what goes on with them. Could they be exposed to bacteria which could potentially be pathogenic?
Zoe Grange, Massey University

Megan says the coccidia parasite, which reproduces in the birds' gut cells, is of concern because it can cause disease in other tissues. “In kiwi, we do see it affecting kidney cells as well, and in some cranes overseas they see it through lots of tissues in the body. One of the important bits is to find out what it does to the takahe because these very high levels in some of these birds must be doing something.”
The team works closely with the takahe recovery team at the Department of Conservation to see why the Burwood Bush population has such high counts.
Brett Gartrell says it could be due to the intensive management of the birds and the fact that they are on the same ground over and over again.
"That’s what we see with the kiwi, it’s the young kiwi in creches that are most affected by this parasite. In the way we manage this we’ve tipped the conditions in favour of the parasite rather than the host, and we think that’s maybe what’s going on with the takahe at the Burwood Bush breeding site.”
Topics: science, environment
Regions:
Tags: Wildbase hospital, wildlife hospital, kiwi, ruru, takahe, penguins, tuatara, parasites, mammalian predators
Duration: 21'08"

=SHOW NOTES=

1:10 First song
Lorde and Disclosure - 'Magnets'
1:15 Sugary Drinks Ban - Dr Anita Bell
We speak to Dr Anita Bell about Waikato Hospital's prohibition of sugary drinks.
1:20 Live Coronation Street - Simon Bennett
The long-running soap, Coronation Street, was broadcast live last night - this morning New Zealand time. Eleven cameras on various sets shot the scenes live. And during the ad breaks, there was interaction with viewers on social media. When Corrie first aired, it was always broadcast live - as was always the case in TV back then. But could this new live interactive format be the future for soaps? We talk to Shortland Street's producer, Simon Bennett.
1:30 Living Below The Line - Geoff Scott
Auckland chef Geoff Scott is participating in the Living Below the Line challenge. Participants will live on $2.25 a day, the New Zealand equivalent of the global extreme poverty line, for all their food for five days. They are doing this in solidarity with the millions of human trafficking and slavery victims around the globe and raising money for TEAR Fund's anti-trafficking work in Southeast Asia.
1:40 Favourite album
Lucinda Williams - 'Lucinda Williams' (1988)
2:10 Mindfulness - Ruby Wax
Ruby Wax is world-renowned as a comedian, celebrity interviewer, and script editor of the 1990s classic, Absolutely Fabulous. She has also got an OBE for her services to mental health and a master's degree in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from Oxford University. She is in New Zealand to address a conference of health professionals.
2:20 Roadmap - Stratford
Today on the roadmap we are going on a roadtrip 30 minutes out of New Plymouth to the South Taranaki town of Stratford. The town has 9000 residents, more than 70 streets inspired by Shakespeare and is close to the stunning mountain. It's been described as the gateway to the national park, Texas of the South and the Shakespearean centre of the antipodes.
3:10 The Expats - Claudia Batten
Our expat this week is Claudia Batten, who lives and works in Los Angeles.
3:25 Masterpieces - Keith Quinn
On Masterpieces today Keith Quinn talks about his all-time favourite All Blacks rugby match.
3:35 Our Changing World: Wildbase - a hospital dedicated to native wildlife
Massey University’s Wildbase Hospital is New Zealand’s only hospital focusing on native species. Here the patients are rare and endangered native birds, reptiles and mammals from all over the country.
3:45 The Panel Pre-Show
What the world is talking about. With Jesse Mulligan, Jim Mora and Zara Potts.

=PLAYLIST=

OPENING SONG:
ARTIST: Disclosure
TITLE: Magnets
COMP: Disclosure
ALBUM: Caracal
LABEL: Island
FAVOURITE ALBUM:
ARTIST: Lucinda Williams
TITLE: 'The nights too long'.
COMP: Williams
ALBUM: Lucinda Williams
LABEL: Roughtrade
ARTIST: Lucinda Williams
TITLE: 'Passionate Kisses'
COMP: Williams
ALBUM: Lucinda Williams
LABEL: Roughtrade
ARTIST: Lucinda Williams
TITLE: 'Crescent City'
COMP: Williams
ALBUM: Lucinda Williams
LABEL: Roughtrade
ARTIST: Lucinda Williams
TITLE: "Am I too blue"
COMP: Williams
ALBUM: Lucinda Williams
LABEL: Roughtrade
ROADMAP:
ARTIST: Jim Bryant, Marni Nixon
TITLE: Somewhere
COMP: Bernstein
ALBUM: West Side Story [Original Soundtrack]
LABEL: Columbia
ARTIST: Joan Baez
TITLE: Diamonds and rust
COMP: Baez
ALBUM: Joan Baez: The Best Of (Compilation)
LABEL: A&M
PANEL:
ARTIST: Nirvana
TITLE: Smells like teen spirit
COMP: Cobain, Grohl, Novoselic
ALBUM: Nevermind
LABEL: Geffen

===4:06 PM. | The Panel===
=DESCRIPTION=

An hour of discussion featuring a range of panellists from right along the opinion spectrum (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 24 September 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 13'57"

16:03
The Panel with Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning (Part 1)
BODY:
What the Panelists Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning have been up to. Profits up - jobs down at Fonterra. Whose hats are in or possibly out of the ring for the next Auckland mayoralty campaign. NZ First MP Ron Mark has drawn a comparison between the newly-included Red Peak flag design and the way Nazi sentry boxes were painted. Jane Kelsey of the University of Auckland joins the Panel to talk about whether New Zealand will get a "quality" deal after talks in Atlanta.
Topics:
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Tags:
Duration: 24'58"

16:05
The Panel with Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning (Part 2)
BODY:
Nirvana's Smells Like Teen Spirit is at the top of a list of "iconic" songs for Generation X. What the Panelists Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning have been thinking about. The Auckland War Memorial Museum's Director of Collections David Reeves explains why Centennial St is giving way to a permanent WW1 display.Volkswagen has been lying about the level of pollutants being emitted from it's diesel vehicles. NZ VW bosses can't yet say how vehicles here are affected play. There's dispute around the term "climate change refugee". But what needs to be done about people from places running out of resources?
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 24'31"

16:07
Panel Intro
BODY:
What the Panelists Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning have been up to.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'54"

16:12
Fonterra profit
BODY:
Profits up - jobs down at Fonterra.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra
Duration: 3'33"

16:16
Auckland mayoralty
BODY:
Whose hats are in or possibly out of the ring for the next Auckland mayoralty campaign.
Topics: politics
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: mayor
Duration: 3'12"

16:19
Red Peak - Nazi connotations?
BODY:
NZ First MP Ron Mark has drawn a comparison between the newly-included Red Peak flag design and the way Nazi sentry boxes were painted.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: flag
Duration: 5'42"

16:25
The TPP negotiations
BODY:
Jane Kelsey of the University of Auckland joins the Panel to talk about whether New Zealand will get a "quality" deal after talks in Atlanta.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: TPP
Duration: 7'26"

16:36
Songs that defined Gen X
BODY:
Nirvana's Smells Like Teen Spirit is at the top of a list of "iconic" songs for Generation X.
Topics: music, history
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'10"

16:40
Panel Says
BODY:
What the Panelists Nevil Gibson and Selwyn Manning have been thinking about.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'41"

16:45
Centennial St closing
BODY:
The Auckland War Memorial Museum's Director of Collections David Reeves explains why Centennial St is giving way to a permanent WW1 display.
Topics: history
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Auckland War Memorial Museum
Duration: 6'20"

16:51
VW emissions scandal
BODY:
Volkswagen has been lying about the level of pollutants being emitted from it's diesel vehicles. NZ VW bosses can't yet say how vehicles here are affected play.
Topics: transport
Regions:
Tags: VW emissions scandal, VW
Duration: 3'37"

16:55
Climate refugees
BODY:
There's dispute around the term "climate change refugee". But what needs to be done about people from places running out of resources?
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Ioane Teitiota, Kiribati
Duration: 4'20"

=SHOW NOTES=

===5:00 PM. | Checkpoint===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's two-hour news and current affairs programme

=AUDIO=

17:00
Checkpoint Top Stories for Thursday 24 September 2015
BODY:
Putting children first in the overhaul of Child Youth and Family and Fonterra's boosted payout is expected to inject a billion dollars into the economy.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 20'29"

17:09
Money to be poured into CYF as it's overhauled
BODY:
More money will be poured into Child, Youth and Family as the government moves to completely overhaul the agency.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: CYF, Child, Youth and Family
Duration: 5'46"

17:14
The new milk payout is not enough for many farmers
BODY:
Dairy farmers say today's lift in Fonterra's forecast payout is a relief but many still won't be making money from their cows.
Topics: farming, business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra
Duration: 4'00"

17:19
Faulty chain blamed for bridge collapse, with tourists on it
BODY:
A defective chain's being blamed for causing a suspension bridge to break, pitching four tourists eight metres down into a river.
Topics:
Regions: Waikato
Tags: DOC, Lake Waikaremoana
Duration: 3'59"

17:23
No danger lessons from tiger close-call not learnt - council
BODY:
The Hamilton City Council is dismissing any suggestion that lessons weren't learned from a close call with a tiger two years ago, that may have prevented the weekend's fatal attack at the city's zoo.
Topics:
Regions: Waikato
Tags: Hamilton zoo, Samantha Kudeweh
Duration: 2'43"

17:26
Tiger investigation fell short - auditor
BODY:
An experienced health and safety auditor has found 25 flaws in the city council's investigation into the 2013 near-miss with the tiger.
Topics:
Regions: Waikato
Tags: Hamilton zoo, Samantha Kudeweh
Duration: 3'40"

17:33
Today's market update
BODY:
Shares in the Fonterra Shareholders' Fund have reached a five-month high after Fonterra's annual profit went up 183%.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'15"

17:36
More detainees speak out from Christmas Island
BODY:
The brother of a New Zealander detained on Christmas Island says he has no confidence authorities here will intervene, even as increasing numbers are sent to the Indian Ocean immigration detention centre.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: Christmas Island, Australia, deportation
Duration: 5'31"

17:41
Volkswagens in NZ may also have rigged engines
BODY:
Volkswagen New Zealand is waiting to hear whether its diesel engines here have been rigged to mask emissions as they are in America.
Topics: transport
Regions:
Tags: Volkswagen, emissions
Duration: 4'08"

17:45
56 science jobs going at Agresearch
BODY:
Agresearch has confirmed it's moving to cut jobs, aiming to axe 33 scientists and 50 technicians to cope with a 5 million dollar drop in income.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: AgResearch, jobs
Duration: 2'53"

17:49
Hui Zhang given longest sentence for class B drugs
BODY:
An Auckland restaurant owner has been imprisoned for the biggest class B drug crime in New Zealand history.
Topics: crime
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Hui Zhang, pseudoephedrine
Duration: 2'28"

17:51
Te Manu Korihi News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
Rangatahi in the Nga Manu Kōrero Speech competition believe it's now doing more to revive te reo Maori, than what it originally set out to do. The national secondary-school contest began 50 years ago to encourage the eloquent use of the English language by Maori students. But as Te Manu Korihi reporter, Leigh Marama McLachlan, reports, its purpose is changing.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'42"

17:55
Dotcom extradition hearing under way in earnest
BODY:
The Crown says Kim Dotcom and three other men accused with him knowingly made vast sums of money from copyright breaches.
Topics: crime, law
Regions:
Tags: Kim Dotcom, copyright breaches, USA
Duration: 4'17"

18:06
Sports News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'11"

18:12
Child Youth and Family report sparks privatisation fears
BODY:
The Social Development Minister has given assurances that no private company will be given ultimate responsiblity for at-risk children in state care.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: CYF, Child, Youth and Family
Duration: 3'14"

18:14
Former social worker on overhauling Child Youth&Family
BODY:
Nicola Atwool has worked as a social worker at Child, Youth and Family and is now an Associate Professor at the University of Otago.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: CYF, Child, Youth and Family
Duration: 4'29"

18:20
Farmer says Fonterra payout doesn't relieve pressure - yet
BODY:
Dairy farmers say today's lift in Fonterra's forecast payout still isn't enough to be making money from their farms.
Topics: farming, economy, business
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra
Duration: 3'27"

18:23
Paralysed man uses brain to walk again
BODY:
In a world first, a man who's been paralysed from the waist down for five years has walked again, using only his brain with help from technology at the University of California.
Topics: science, technology
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'48"

18:27
Mayor defends spending on public art works
BODY:
The Christchurch mayor is defending spending ratepayers' money on public artworks.
Topics: politics, arts
Regions: Canterbury
Tags: Antony Gormley
Duration: 3'22"

18:35
Patient death-rate data shines spotlight on some hospitals
BODY:
Several regional public hospitals are under increased scrutiny over higher than predicted death rates of patients.
Topics: health
Regions:
Tags: death rates
Duration: 3'00"

18:42
Big consumer complaints for the big names
BODY:
Spark, Air New Zealand, the Warehouse - we're not talking not just about some of the biggest names on the stock market, but also the companies which topped the complaints list last year.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: complaints
Duration: 3'17"

18:45
'Redpeak' will be added to the flag referendum
BODY:
After weeks of political wrangling there will now officially be five designs to choose from when voters return their flag referendum papers.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: flag
Duration: 2'40"

18:48
Te Manu Korihi News for 24 September 2015
BODY:
A march today to raise awareness about child sexual abuse was also joined by Northland College students who promoted their concerns about bullying; Rangatahi in the Nga Manu Kōrero Speech competition believe it's now doing more to revive te reo Maori, than what it originally set out to do; The Minister of Māori Development, Te Ururoa Flavell, says the Te Reo Maori bill has been held up because he wants to translate the piece of legislation into Maori.
Topics: te ao Maori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'29"

18:52
Today In Parliament for 24 September 2015 - evening edition
BODY:
New Zealand First Leader Winston Peters returns to the House following a trip to the UK as media liaison for the Parliamentary Rugby Team at the World Cup, and puts questions to Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee about a photo showing him in an allegedly custom made flak jacket; New Zealand Flag Referendums Amendment Bill passes final reading by 109 votes to 12.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'03"

=SHOW NOTES=

===7:06 PM. | Nights===
=DESCRIPTION=

Entertainment and information, including: 7:30 At the Movies with Simon Morris: Current film releases and film related topics (RNZ) 8:13 Windows on the World: International public radio features and documentaries 9:06 Our Changing World: Science and environment news from NZ and the world (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

19:12
Mathematics - The Seven Impossible Problems
BODY:
Our official number cruncher is back to talk about the Millennium Prize Problems. Solve one of them and strike it rich. Grigori Perelman solved the Poincare Conjecture, but he didn't take the money.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: mathematics, Millenium Prize Problems
Duration: 21'54"

20:42
Cultural Ambassador - Video Games
BODY:
Joystick ninja and GamePlanet editor Matt Maguire solves the riddles, beats the bad guys and saves the Earth countless times on a myriad of gaming platforms. Matt is wrapping up his segment on Nights by talking about good mobile games to try out, and how games try to match what we expect from films by replicating the results of shooting at 24 frames per second.
EXTENDED BODY:
Joystick ninja and GamePlanet editor Matt Maguire solves the riddles, beats the bad guys and saves the Earth countless times on a myriad of gaming platforms. Matt is wrapping up his segment on Nights by talking about good mobile games to try out, and how games try to match what we expect from films by replicating the results of shooting at 24 frames per second.
Topics: arts, business, education, internet
Regions:
Tags: video games, computer games
Duration: 15'45"

20:59
Conundrum Clue Seven
BODY:
Conundrum Clue number 7.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 19"

21:59
Conundrum Clue Eight
BODY:
Conundrum Clue number eight.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 39"

=SHOW NOTES=

7:10 Dr Dillon Mayhew: Mathematics
Our official number cruncher is back to talk about the Millennium Prize Problems. Solve one of them and strike it rich. Grigori Perelman solved the Poincare Conjecture, but he didn't take the money.
[embed] https://youtu.be/GItmC9lxeco
7:30 At the Movies

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

19:30
At The Movies for 24 September
BODY:
Simon Morris looks at two award-worthy thrillers - Everest, the movie version of Rob Hall's disastrous clime, Sicario starring Emily Blunt and Benicio del Toro, and he also talks to expat American director Jake Mahaffy, whose film Free In Deed picked up a prestigious award at the Venice Film Festival.
EXTENDED BODY:
Simon Morris looks at two award-worthy thrillers - Everest, the movie version of Rob Hall's disastrous clime, Sicario starring Emily Blunt and Benicio del Toro, and he also talks to expat American director Jake Mahaffy, whose film Free In Deed picked up a prestigious award at the Venice Film Festival.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film
Duration: 23'19"

7:30 At the Movies
Simon Morris reviews two thrillers, Everest, the movie version of New Zealander Rob Hall's disastrous climb, and Sicario, starring Emily Blunt and Benicio del Toro.
8:10 Windows on the World
International public radio documentaries - visit the Windows on the World web page to find links to these documentaries. This evening, the war in Yemen and its links with Saudi Arabia.
8:40 Cultural Ambassador Matt Maguire: Video Games
It's Matt's last outing on Nights. He wants to use his final chat with Bryan to rave about some of his favourite games. Bryan will ask him where he thinks the whole business of video gaming is going.
9:06 Our Changing World

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

21:06
The worm returns
BODY:
Many farms in New Zealand are missing deep burrowing earthworms, that can help better grass growth, so Nicole Schon is relocating worms to farms in need
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“Worms do a great job in the soil to promote pasture growth.”
Nicole Schon, Agresearch.

When it comes to worms, the more the merrier as far as earthworm scientist Nicole Schon is concerned. She’s busy translocating deep burrowing worms to farms around the country, in the hope of building up their numbers so that they, in their turn, will help promote grass growth and feed more livestock.
“All the worm species we have in our pasture systems are exotic, and they arrived accidentally with European settlers, in soil with fruit trees and in ship’s ballast,” says Nicole. “We’ve got about 12 common species but they’re not all found everywhere. We might find two to three species in a paddock – if you find more than that you’re doing quite well, really.”

Nicole points out that New Zealand has also got over 200 species of native earthworms, but she says that they prefer our forest ecosystems.
The two commonest worm species on New Zealand farms are the dung worm (Lumbricus rubellus) which feeds on organic material, including dung, near the surface of the soil, and the grey worm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) that is active in the top 15 cm of the soil. The dung worm is a dark red-brown colour and very active when it is disturbed, while the grey worm is pinky grey in colour with a darker head.
The worm that Nicole is translocating is the blackhead or deep burrowing worm (Aporrectodea longa), which as its name suggests, burrows more deeply and will help water and grass roots penetrate deeper into the soil. Deep burrowing worms are mostly absent in the South Island and don’t occur everywhere in the North Island; a previous study found that six and a half million hectares of pasture land in New Zealand lack deep burrowing earthworms.
Each of these worms has a slightly different role in the soil, and together they result in well aerated, rich soil.
Nicola says that when the first worm reintroductions were carried out in the 1980s researchers found that the presence of deep burrowing worms increased pasture production by up to 20%. In pastures with no worms a thick thatch of dead grass accumulated on top of the soil. What the worms did was break this thatch down, dragging it into the soil where it added important organic matter. The action of the worms also increased water movement through the soil, aerated it and provided channels so roots can reach down further.
This earthworm relocation project is a six-year long Sustainable Farming Fund project, organised by Agresearch and Beef + Lamb NZ, and involves a number of Landcorp and private farms. Deep burrowing worms have been moved to three farms in the Manawatu, seven on the central plateau in the North Island, and 10 each near Timaru and Oamaru; none of these farms currently have deep burrowing worms. In some paddocks sixteen bags, each containing six worms, are added to the ground. In others, turfs containing some worms are added instead. Nicole and her team will return in a year to see whether the deep burrowing worms have established and increased in both number and area, and will continue to monitor for a further two years after that.
Topics: science, environment, farming
Regions:
Tags: earthworms, invertebrates, soil, worms
Duration: 15'04"

21:20
Rethinking enzyme evolution
BODY:
Proteins have evolved over many millions of years - but they can also evolve rapidly, in just years, and this offers insights into how evolution itself works
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
“We think a lot of today’s enzymes are not as good as they could be and we’re exploring how that could be.”
Matilda Newton, University of Otago

Proteins are the work horses of cells. Royal Society of New Zealand Rutherford Discovery Fellow Wayne Patrick and colleagues in the Laboratory for Enzyme Engineering and Evolution (or E-cubed Lab) at the University of Otago are most interested in enzymes, proteins which catalyse biochemical reactions.
Wayne says he is “interested in the evolutionary processes that gave rise to enzymes and using that knowledge to look at what the future may have in store for those enzymes.”
Although evolution usually takes place over long time periods - millions, even hundreds of millions of years - Wayne says that it can also take place incredibly rapidly. He cites the emergence of antibiotic resistance, and bacteria that can degrade human-made pesticides, as examples of this.
For her PhD Matilda Newton studied how one enzyme can evolve from one particular function to another function, and developed a large family tree of enzymes. “I studied two enzymes that are related to each other; so two proteins can be related just as two species can be related. You can think of, say, a horse and a zebra, and then look at my two proteins and think of them as being similar in those sorts of ways.” Matilda has been studying how one protein can be turned into the other one, and from that infer some of the changes that might have been happening naturally over millions of years, or as Wayne has pointed out, have happened really quickly.
“I found that one of these enzymes could be switched into the other one with minimal changes,” says Matilda. “Proteins are made of about 250 amino acids, so they’re like a string of beads, and we found that as little as changing three of these little beads was enough to change one enzyme into the other one.”
Matilda says that enzymes are usually very specialised, but some of the enzymes she was working with had several different ways of employing their chemistry.
“We might be glimpsing what a primordial enzyme looked like four billion or so years ago,” says Wayne. “They may have done their jobs poorly or sloppily, but good enough for life to get going.”

Their rather provocative suggestion is that rather than evolution always being a slow and steady march from barely functional life forms in the primordial soup, towards a modern-day pinnacle of near perfection, it more often resembles a drunken walk – and, as a result, many enzymes were better catalysts in the ancient past than they are today.
Matilda, Wayne and University of Waikato collaborator Vic Arcus recently published a paper discussing evolution in proteins. They discuss examples in which enzymes have evolved with lightning speed—over years, rather than eons—and provide evidence that many enzymes were better catalysts in the ancient past than they are today. The paper ‘Rapid bursts and slow declines: on the possible evolutionary trajectories of enzymes’ was published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
The work of the E-Cubed Lab includes collaborating with biotechnology company LanzaTech, which has a microbe that can grow by using harmful greenhouse gases from industrial plants such as steel mills and oil refineries. The Otago researchers are engineering enzymes to put into this microbe so it can produce useful raw materials, such as butanone and 2-butanol, that are otherwise made from petroleum.
In 2010 Wayne Patrick was named Young Biotechnologist of the Year. He has previously been on Our Changing Word talking about promiscuous proteins. Matilda Newton is a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Minnesota.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: proteins, enzymes, evolution
Duration: 12'45"

21:34
Oil off a duck's back
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It takes 400 litres of freshwater to clean a seabird that has been covered in oil, but new research using ducks shows that seawater is a viable alternative
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By Alison Ballance
Four hundred litres of freshwater, lots of Dawn detergent, and much time and effort. That is what it takes to clean up a single bird that has come into contact with oil from an oil spill. Multiply that four hundred litres by hundreds of birds and you’re talking a lot of water.
Members of the National Oiled Wildlife Response Team at Wildbase, at Massey University, are front-line responders when it comes to looking after wildlife following an oil spill. They have their equipment and trained staff ready to mobilise anywhere around New Zealand if they’re needed. Almost four years ago, when the container ship Rena ran aground on Astrolabe Reef near Tauranga, the Oiled Wildlife Response team led efforts to clean and rehabilitate more than 500 oiled little blue penguins and other birds. Hayley Pearson says that they were lucky’ when it came to the penguins “as they’re a hardy little bird”, and 95% of them were successfully rehabilitated.
But not all birds are so hardy, and when it comes to wildlife, oil is often deadly. More than 2000 birds died as a result of the Rena spill.
“Oil is quite debilitating for animals,” says Louise Chilvers. “It smothers them, it can cause them to drown, it can cause them to freeze to death. It affects their ability to thermoregulate [and maintain their temperature], and obviously it can get in to the food chain and they can eat it as well.

While big events such as the Rena disaster are a rare occurrence, Louise says that small fuel spills, such as a diesel spill at a marina, are almost a weekly occurrence.
The rehabilitation process for an oiled bird begins on the beach with people looking for affected animals. The birds are taken to wherever the rehabilitation centre has been set up and goes through a triage process to determine if it is likely to survive. Birds that are too bad are euthanized, while the others are taken to a vet to be stabilised and given food and fluids as necessary.
Then the wash-rinse-dry process begins. This takes warm water and lots of Dawn detergent, which many studies have shown is the best option; unfortunately it is not available in New Zealand, and the unit has to go to great lengths to import stocks of it.
“The bird is moved through lots of buckets,” says Hayley, “and it is washed with 200 litres of warm water that has been softened to remove any particles that might affect the bird’s feathers. It takes between 20-40 minutes to wash one bird.”
“Then we have to do a very thorough rinse process, as the detergent can be just as harmful to the feathers as the oil, by disrupting its structure.”

Next the bird is taken to warm, quiet environment, where it is allowed to preen naturally, and can recover its composure after what has been a stressful few hours. Over the following few days the birds are allowed out into a swimming pool to exercise for a few hours at a time, and this is an opportunity for the team to observe the birds and check that their feathers have become waterproof again. When the birds are judged to be fully waterproof they are released back into the wild.
During the Rena disaster the National Oiled Wildlife Response Unit had the use of a large area next to a waste water treatment plant in Tauranga, and there was a plentiful supply of freshwater on hand. But the Unit was concerned about how they’d cope in a more remote area with no ready supply of freshwater. So they embarked on an experiment, so see how well saltwater would work instead. Their ethics approval allowed them to use a domestic flock of ducks, and the ducks were dipped in oil, and then put through the usual wash-rinse-dry cycle, but using saltwater rather than fresh. They were pleased to discover that it worked as well, although it took more water to achieve the same result, and the salt crystals in the water caused the birds to look a bit scruffier for a few days until their preening got their feathers to right once more. Louise and Hayley report that all the ducks recovered well and were returned to their rural lifestyle block.
‘Best practise’ for treating oiled wildlife will continue to be freshwater, but Louise and Hayley say it is great to know that they could clean oiled animals using saltwater if they needed to - but, as always, they are hoping their skills and equipment won’t be called on any time soon.
Topics: science, environment
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Tags: oil spill, penguins, wildlife, ducks, National Oiled Wildlife Response Team
Duration: 15'46"

21:45
Wildbase - a hospital dedicated to native wildlife
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At Wildbase, New Zealand's only dedicated wildlife hospital, vets treat more than 300 native animals each year as well as doing research on conservation issues.
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The birds that are in hospital here are the canaries in the coalmine for us. They are the ones telling us that there is something wrong going on in their wider environment.
Brett Gartrell, Massey University

Vets at Massey University’s Wildbase hospital, New Zealand’s only dedicated wildlife hospital, see about 300 patients each year. Most arrive as trauma victims following cat attacks, window strikes and collisions with cars. The vets’ job is to help their patients to return to the wild as quickly as possible, but the animals' injuries and diseases are sometimes also indicative of wider issues and become the starting point for research projects.
Wildbase director Brett Gartrell says operating on wildlife sometimes requires innovation and creativity, such as the use of a hypodermic needle and nail acrylic to fix a kiwi’s cracked bill tip.
“Kiwi do injure their bill quite a bit because they are probing around and looking in crevices and cracks.”
This big, male tuatara (above) was part of a translocation from Stevens Island, at the northern tip of the Marlborough Sounds, to the Cape Kidnappers sanctuary. Brett Gartrell says the tuatara was in a pen with many others, waiting to be released, but was outcompeted. “When he arrived, he was nothing but skin and bone. He’s been with us for a couple of months now. He was full of parasites, so as his body condition deteriorated, the parasite load increased.”
While the patient has now fully recovered, he will stay at the hospital until spring temperatures are warm enough for his release to stop him from going into a winter torpor. The reptile’s condition is also of interest for the team as part of a research project to study the possible impacts of climate change.
Stephanie Price, at Victoria University, is using translocations to places such as the Cape Kidnappers sanctuary, which is warmer than Stevens Island, to study how warmer temperatures influence the sex ratio of offspring and the general health of the populations. The ancient reptiles lay their eggs into a nest they dig into the ground. The temperature during incubation controls the sex of the hatchlings – with warmer temperatures producing more males. But warmer conditions could also provide an advantage for parasites.
Our previous research has shown that tuatara are very resistant to salmonella, unlike other reptiles. But in the move we have actually had a couple of the tuatara develop salmonella infections. It might be that in the colder climate, salmonella can’t get a foothold but as the tuatara are warming up, that puts them into the temperature range where the bacteria are more likely to create an infection.

That’s a worry for the future, says Brett, especially with tuatara “being left on small island reserves or mainland sanctuaries where they can’t move to adjust their temperatures”.
Parasite loading in native species that are going through translocations is also a research focus for resident vet Megan Jolly and postdoctoral fellow Zoe Grange – particularly in takahe.
Takahe were once thought to be extinct, but were rediscovered in 1948 in the remote Murchison Mountains in Fiordland. Even today, despite years of conservation effort, takahe remain critically endangered, with a population count of about 290 birds.
Megan studies a protozoan parasite called coccidia in takahe, which is an internal parasite that also shows up in other birds in captive breeding programmes or intense management conditions. The birds at the Burwood Bush takahe rearing unit have high counts of coccidia, and Megan says at least one takahe death is suspected to have been the result of high parasite loads.
Zoe’s focus is on two bacterial pathogens – salmonella and campylobacter. “We’ve collected samples to investigate bacterial loads in different populations of takahe. The birds are moved between places to avoid inbreeding but very little is known about what happens to the host-parasite relationship as a consequence of isolation and movement between populations.”
Zoe has developed a social network analysis – “a bit like facebook for takahe” – to explore connections between populations, and she found that breeding centres act as hubs for the bacteria.
When you’re moving a takahe from one population to a very distinct other location, this could be influencing what goes on with them. Could they be exposed to bacteria which could potentially be pathogenic?
Zoe Grange, Massey University

Megan says the coccidia parasite, which reproduces in the birds' gut cells, is of concern because it can cause disease in other tissues. “In kiwi, we do see it affecting kidney cells as well, and in some cranes overseas they see it through lots of tissues in the body. One of the important bits is to find out what it does to the takahe because these very high levels in some of these birds must be doing something.”
The team works closely with the takahe recovery team at the Department of Conservation to see why the Burwood Bush population has such high counts.
Brett Gartrell says it could be due to the intensive management of the birds and the fact that they are on the same ground over and over again.
"That’s what we see with the kiwi, it’s the young kiwi in creches that are most affected by this parasite. In the way we manage this we’ve tipped the conditions in favour of the parasite rather than the host, and we think that’s maybe what’s going on with the takahe at the Burwood Bush breeding site.”
Topics: science, environment
Regions:
Tags: Wildbase hospital, wildlife hospital, kiwi, ruru, takahe, penguins, tuatara, parasites, mammalian predators
Duration: 21'08"

9:06 Our Changing World
Science and environment news from New Zealand and the world.
10:17 Late Edition
A review of the leading news from Morning Report, Nine to Noon, Afternoons and Checkpoint. Also hear the latest news from around the Pacific on Radio New Zealand International's Dateline Pacific.
11:06 Music 101 pocket edition
A contemporary music magazine with interviews and music from New Zealand and overseas artists. This evening, Jon Toogood goes acoustic in the Music 101 Studio, and Tami Neilson takes Emma Smith through her new album Don't Be Afraid.

===10:00 PM. | Late Edition===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, including Dateline Pacific and the day's best interviews from Radio New Zealand National

===11:06 PM. | Music 101===
=DESCRIPTION=

Music, interviews, live performances, behind the scenes, industry issues, career profiles, new, back catalogue, undiscovered, greatest hits, tall tales - with a focus on NZ (RNZ)

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Year 2015

Reference number 274463

Media type AUDIO

Collection Sound Collection

Ngā Taonga Korero Collection

Credits RNZ Collection
Radio New Zealand National, Broadcaster

Duration 24:00:00

Date 24 Sep 2015

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