Radio New Zealand National. 2015-04-30. 00:00-23:59.

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A 24-hour recording of Radio New Zealand National. The following rundown is sourced from the broadcaster’s website. Note some overseas/copyright restricted items may not appear in the supplied rundown:

30 April 2015

===12:04 AM. | All Night Programme===
=DESCRIPTION=

Including: 12:05 Music after Midnight; 12:30 One in Five (RNZ); 1:05 Discovery (BBC); 2:05 The Thursday Feature (RNZ); 3:05 The Captive Wife, by Fiona Kidman (2 of 15, RNZ); 3:30 NZ Books (RNZ); 5:10 Witness (BBC); 5:45 The Day in Parliament (RNZ)

===6:00 AM. | Morning Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's three-hour breakfast news show with news and interviews, bulletins on the hour and half-hour

=AUDIO=

06:00
Top Stories for Thursday 30 April 2015
BODY:
Protests in Nepal as aid trickles out; New Zealand donations for Nepal at record speed; PM discussion of NZ soldiers whereabouts no big deal; PM says it's unlikely we'll withdraw ambassador to Indonesia; Australia withdraws ambassador to Indonesia following executions; Calm slowly being restored to Baltimore streets; Govt to announce transfer of thousands of state houses - Labour.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 32'05"

06:06
Sports News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'58"

06:11
Prime Minister stands by Iraq deployment decision
BODY:
The Prime Minister, John Key, is standing by his decision to tell overseas media the whereabouts of New Zealand troops en route to Iraq.
Topics: politics, defence force
Regions:
Tags: Iraq, John Key
Duration: 1'52"

06:16
Pacific News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
The latest from the Pacific region.
Topics: Pacific
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'50"

06:22
Morning Rural News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sector.
Topics: farming, rural
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'11"

06:27
Te Manu Korihi News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An iwi says it's unhappy to only find out about an oil spill via the media and press releases from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council; The Māori Language Commission is backing the use of Te Reo on a Wellington restaurant's menu; The Waitangi Tribunal has called a judicial conference to sort out second round of hearings into Māori fresh water and geothermal rights; The Geographic Board is consulting with the public on its plans to assign the name Remutaka Pass at the top of the Rimutaka Ranges.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'31"

06:41
Ghurka soldier keen to get back to help family in Nepal
BODY:
A Ghurka soldier from Nepal who is currently in New Zealand says he is eager to reunite with his family to help them rebuild.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, earthquake
Duration: 1'28"

06:43
Prime Minister unsure about sealing lucrative free trade deal
BODY:
The Prime Minister, John Key, has wrapped up his trade visit to the Gulf States but can't be specific about the chances of getting a lucrative free trade deal.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: John Key
Duration: 2'12"

06:48
Economic growth lopsided
BODY:
The economy is expected to expand at just above three percent but growth is lopsided.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'31"

06:50
Genesis Energy's revised forecast surprises the market
BODY:
Genesis Energy's share price tumbled more than 7-and-a-half percent yesterday after disappointing the market with a greater than a 10 percent mark-down on its earnings outlook.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'11"

06:52
EPA hears economics of Maui gas field
BODY:
The economics of the Maui gas field have been given an airing before the Environmental Protection Authority in Wellington.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'20"

06:54
March trade figures stronger than expected
BODY:
Economists say the latest trade figures for March were stronger than expected, given the high dollar and challenges in key export markets.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'36"

06:55
Business confidence has edged back in April
BODY:
Business confidence has edged back in April, but firms are still buoyant.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'30"

06:57
Synlait Milk launches new product to help insomniacs sleep
BODY:
Synlait Milk's farmers are staying up late to help insomniacs get a better night's rest.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: milk, insomniacs
Duration: 2'27"

06:59
Morning markets
BODY:
Wall Street's fallen, after the weaker than expected economic figures.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Wall Street
Duration: 27"

07:06
Sports News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'48"

07:11
Protests in Nepal as aid trickles out
BODY:
Riot police were called out into the streets of Kathmandu overnight as frustrated people protested against the slow distribution of aid supplies.
Topics: international aid and development
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, earthquake
Duration: 5'45"

07:16
New Zealand donations for Nepal at record speed
BODY:
Here the speed of donations pouring in to help those in Nepal has broken records.
Topics: international aid and development
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, earthquake, donations
Duration: 2'41"

07:22
PM discussion of NZ soldiers whereabouts no big deal
BODY:
The Prime Minister is shrugging off criticism for revealing the whereabouts of New Zealand soldiers to Arabic media, after repeatedly refusing to discuss operational details with media in New Zealand.
Topics: defence force
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 5'02"

07:25
PM says it's unlikely we'll withdraw ambassador to Indonesia
BODY:
Prime Minister, John Key says it's unlikely New Zealand will withdraw its ambassador to Indonesia after the execution of two Australian men yesterday.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: Indonesia
Duration: 2'12"

07:27
Aus withdraws ambassador to Indonesia following executions
BODY:
Australia withdrew its ambassador from Indonesia with Australian foreign minister Julie Bishop saying they want to send a message to the Indonesian Government.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: Indonesia, Australia
Duration: 4'58"

07:35
Calm slowly being restored to Baltimore streets
BODY:
Calm appears to have been restored in the American city of Baltimore, which has been hit by some of the worst riots for 50 years.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Baltimore, riots
Duration: 4'50"

07:40
Govt to announce transfer of thousands of state houses - Labour
BODY:
The Labour Party says the Government's overhaul of state housing is about to shift up a gear with a significant Government announcement expected this morning.
Topics: politics, housing
Regions:
Tags: Labour Party, Phil Twyford
Duration: 5'59"

07:47
New Zealand Muslims locked out of the property market
BODY:
Thousands of New Zealand Muslims are feeling locked out of the property market, unable to find Islam-friendly home loans.
EXTENDED BODY:

Photo: RNZ / Diego Opatowski

Thousands of New Zealand Muslims are feeling locked out of the property market, unable to find Islam-friendly home loans.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Muslims, property market, New Zealand
Duration: 3'57"

07:53
New player in the Chinese infant formula market
BODY:
Members of the infant formula industry are playing down the impact on New Zealand from a new range targeting the Chinese market.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: China, infant formula, New Zealand
Duration: 3'20"

07:56
Labour worried by new Chinese baby formula venture
BODY:
Labour's primary industries spokesman Damien O'Connor on the new Chinese baby formula venture.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: China, infant formula, New Zealand
Duration: 3'49"

08:06
Sports News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'07"

08:11
Nepal still in desperate need - Oxfam
BODY:
The aid agency Oxfam says nearly half a million people are living in very poor conditions five days after the 7-point-8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal.
Topics: international aid and development
Regions:
Tags: Oxfam, Nepal, earthquake
Duration: 5'13"

08:16
Government should step up for NZers imprisoned overseas
BODY:
A New Zealand man could face a similar fate to the Australian ringleaders of the Bali Nine drug smuggling group, Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran, who were executed in Indonesia yesterday morning.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Bali Nine, Indonesia, New Zealand
Duration: 6'59"

08:23
Police say GPS led them to Blessie's body
BODY:
GPS coordinates from the electronic bracelet worn by the man accused of Blessie Gotingco's murder led police directly to her body in the bush at a North Shore cemetery.
Topics: crime
Regions:
Tags: Blessie Gotingco
Duration: 3'11"

08:27
Voucher system sparks fears of privatisation
BODY:
The Government has confirmed it's setting up a voucher system that it says will give disabled people more choice over their home care.
Topics: disability
Regions:
Tags: home care
Duration: 3'10"

08:30
Markets Update for 30 April 2015
BODY:
A brief update of movements in the financial sector.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'23"

08:36
Xero's Drury out to recapture excitement of accounting
BODY:
The gloss has come off Rod Drury's accounting software company Xero in the past 12 months.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: accounting software
Duration: 4'19"

08:41
UK election race neck and neck - columnist
BODY:
With eight days to go until the UK General Election, opposition leader Ed Miliband has made a pitch for the youth vote by visiting actor Russell Brand for what's being called "a kitchen chat" in the comedian's multi million pound London flat.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: United Kingdom General Election, Russell Brand, Ed Miliband
Duration: 8'16"

08:51
Te Manu Korihi News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An iwi says it's unhappy to only find out about an oil spill via the media and press releases from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council; One of Wellington's newest restaurants is serving its diners Te Reo Māori - not as a dish, but as an extra language on its menu; The Waitangi Tribunal has called a judicial conference to sort out second round of hearings into Māori fresh water and geothermal rights; The Geographic Board is consulting with the public on its plans to assign the name Remutaka Pass at the top of the Rimutaka Ranges.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'21"

08:56
Students say university is risking quality
BODY:
Victoria University's Students' Association says the university is sacrificing quality in a race for government funding and international students.
Topics: education
Regions:
Tags: Victoria University
Duration: 2'59"

08:58
Mayweather v Pacquiao bout hype reaches fever pitch
BODY:
The hype surrounding what's being described as the fight of the century is reaching fever pitch with boxers Floyd Mayweather and Manny Pacquiao making final preparations for their bout in Las Vegas on Sunday.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags: Floyd Mayweather, Manny Pacquiao, boxing
Duration: 3'11"

=SHOW NOTES=

===9:06 AM. | Nine To Noon===
=DESCRIPTION=

Current affairs and topics of interest, including: 10:45 The Reading: Touchstones, by James McNeish (2 of 8, RNZ)

=AUDIO=

09:07
CCC considers underwriting private rents to house homeless
BODY:
The Christchurch City Council is considering dipping into its social housing fund, by paying for private rental properties for the homeless over winter.
Topics: housing
Regions:
Tags: poverty, homelessness
Duration: 12'58"

09:23
Insurance watchdog calls for law change over non-disclosure
BODY:
The Insurance and Savings Ombudsman is calling for a law change to protect insurance customers who accidentally leave out information when applying for a policy. Karen Stevens says 10 percent of claims to her office are from people who've had claims denied because they omitted to declare information, most commonly pre-existing medical conditions and criminal convictions.
Topics: money
Regions:
Tags: insurance
Duration: 28'53"

09:53
UK correspondent, Iain MacWhirter in Scotland
BODY:
Iain MacWhirter discusses the rise of the Scottish National Party, which is expected to take most of the Scottish seats in the UK general election, and may also hold the balance of power.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: Scotland, UK
Duration: 6'12"

10:07
Muslim women's rights, headscarves and hymens with Mona Eltahawy
BODY:
Mona Eltahawy's essays on Egypt, women's rights and the Islamic world have been published in the Washington Post, The Guardian and the New York Times. In November 2011, Mona Eltahawy came to worldwide attention when she was assaulted by police during the Egyptian Revolution. She responded by writing a controversial piece in Foreign Policy entitled Why Do They Hate Us; 'they' being Muslim men, 'us' being women. In 2012 Newsweek named her as one of its 'Fearless Women'. Although born in Egypt, Mona Eltahawy has spent many years living in the West, she has now returned to her homeland to fight for women's rights. Her book, Headscarves and Hymens is described as a passionate manifesto decrying misogyny in the Arab world. It draws on her years as a campaigner and commentator on women's issues, and also explores what is ahead for women in the Arab world following the Arab Spring. The book's subtitle is Why the Middle East needs a sexual revolution.
EXTENDED BODY:

Mona Eltahawy's essays on Egypt, women's rights and the Islamic world have been published in the Washington Post, The Guardian and the New York Times. In November 2011, Mona Eltahawy came to worldwide attention when she was assaulted by police during the Egyptian Revolution. She responded by writing a controversial piece in Foreign Policy entitled Why Do They Hate Us; 'they' being Muslim men, 'us' being women. In 2012 Newsweek named her as one of its 'Fearless Women'. Although born in Egypt, Mona Eltahawy has spent many years living in the West, she has now returned to her homeland to fight for women's rights. Her book, Headscarves and Hymens is described as a passionate manifesto decrying misogyny in the Arab world. It draws on her years as a campaigner and commentator on women's issues, and also explores what is ahead for women in the Arab world following the Arab Spring. The book's subtitle is Why the Middle East needs a sexual revolution.
Topics: author interview
Regions:
Tags: Mona Eltahawy, Egypt, Muslim women, headscarves and hymens
Duration: 26'29"

10:40
Book Review: Very Good Lives by J K Rowling
BODY:
Written by J K Rowling, published by Little Brown, reviewed by Charlotte Graham.
Topics: books
Regions:
Tags: J K Rowling
Duration: 8'41"

11:16
New Technology commentator Erika Pearson
BODY:
New technology commentator Erika Pearson on using drones to track wandering Alzheimer's patients, using your "ear print" to unlock your phone and private companies exploiting Europe's right to be forgotten law to cover up bad publicity.
Topics: technology
Regions:
Tags: alzheimers
Duration: 12'07"

11:30
How to keep even non-sporty kids active
BODY:
Julz Darroch has worked for 20 years in the fitness industry. She has been a fitness trainer, gym owner, and has worked in community organisations in education and training. She's also been a contributor to parenting magazines and websites.
Topics: health, life and society
Regions:
Tags: keeping kids active
Duration: 21'28"

11:50
TV Reviewer, Regan Cunliffe
BODY:
Regan Cunliffe discusses how TV ratings are collected and questions whether they really give an accurate picture of what people are watching.
Topics: media
Regions:
Tags: TV Review
Duration: 9'00"

=SHOW NOTES=

09:05 Christchurch City Council considers underwriting private rents to house homeless
The Christchurch City Council is considering dipping into its social housing fund, by paying for private rental properties for the homeless over winter.
The council has two million dollars set aside to begin work on up to eight units at Opawa. The Deputy Mayor, Vicki Buck wants that money used instead to underwrite private rentals so that many of the city's homeless do not have to spend another winter living rough.
09:30 Insurance watchdog calls for law change over non-disclosure
The Insurance and Savings Ombudsman is calling for a law change to protect insurance customers who accidentally leave out information when applying for a policy. Karen Stevens says 10 percent of claims to her office are from people who've had claims denied because they omitted to declare information, most commonly pre-existing medical conditions and criminal convictions.
She says the law should recognise the difference between deliberate and accidental non-disclosure. Peter Neilson is the Chief Executive of the Financial Services Council.
09:45 UK correspondent, Iain MacWhirter in Scotland
Iain MacWhirter discusses the rise of the Scottish National Party, which is expected to take most of the Scottish seats in the UK general election, and may also hold the balance of power.
10:05 Muslim women's rights, headscarves and hymens with Mona Eltahawy
Mona Eltahawy's essays on Egypt, women's rights and the Islamic world have been published in the Washington Post, The Guardian and the New York Times. In November 2011, Mona Eltahawy came to worldwide attention when she was assaulted by police during the Egyptian Revolution. She responded by writing a controversial piece in Foreign Policy entitled Why Do They Hate Us; 'they' being Muslim men, 'us' being women. In 2012 Newsweek named her as one of its 'Fearless Women'. Although born in Egypt, Mona Eltahawy has spent many years living in the West, she has now returned to her homeland to fight for women's rights. Her book, Headscarves and Hymens is described as a passionate manifesto decrying misogyny in the Arab world. It draws on her years as a campaigner and commentator on women's issues, and also explores what is ahead for women in the Arab world following the Arab Spring. The book's subtitle is Why the Middle East needs a sexual revolution.

10:25 Book review: 'Very Good Lives' by J K Rowling
Published by Little Brown. Reviewed by Charlotte Graham.
10:45 The Reading: 'Touchstones' by James McNeish
We continue the memoir of James McNeish, about the people in his life who shaped his perspective: “a gallery of people – rebels, outsiders, romantics, enlightened misfits and illiterates – who have touched me in life.” (Part 9 of 15, RNZ).
11:05 New technology commentator Erika Pearson
New technology commentator Erika Pearson on using drones to track wandering Alzheimer’s patients, using your "ear print" to unlock your phone and private companies exploiting Europe's right to be forgotten law to cover up bad publicity.
11:30 How to keep even non-sporty kids active
Julz Darroch has worked for 20 years in the fitness industry. She has been a fitness trainer, gym owner, and has worked in community organisations in education and training. She's also been a contributor to parenting magazines and websites.
11:45 TV Review Regan Cunliffe
Regan Cunliffe discusses how TV ratings are collected and questions whether they really give an accurate picture of what people are watching.

===Noon | Midday Report===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, followed by updates and reports until 1.00pm, including: 12:16 Business News 12:26 Sport 12:34 Rural News 12:43 Worldwatch

=AUDIO=

12:00
Midday News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
A big hit for the country as Fonterra cuts its forecast milk payout again and the dollar falls after the Reserve Bank hints the Official Cash Rate could drop.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 15'17"

12:17
NZD falls following RBNZ decision to leave OCR unchanged
BODY:
But first, the New Zealand dollar fell more than one cent against the US dollar to 75.90 cents this morning, after the Reserve Bank left the official cash rate unchanged at 3-point-5 percent and Fonterra cut the forecast payout to farmers.
Topics: money, business, economy
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand dollar, NZ dollar
Duration: 1'36"

12:19
RBNZ is unlikely to raise the OCR as housing demand continues
BODY:
Economists say there is less than a 50-50 chance of the central bank lowering the key interest rate before the end of the year, particularly given an increasing population and Auckland's red hot housing market.
Topics: money, economy
Regions:
Tags: interest rates
Duration: 1'02"

12:20
Response to milk price drop
BODY:
An agricultural analyst at Harbour Asset Management, Oyvinn Rimer, says Fonterra's latest cut to its forecast payout is not surprising.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Fonterra, dairy price
Duration: 1'02"

12:21
Building consents in March rise to nine-year high
BODY:
New building consents for March are at their highest level in nine years.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: building consents
Duration: 33"

12:21
Tourism Holdings lifts profit forecast
BODY:
Tourism Holdings' shares jumped nearly 12 percent after it lifted its profit forecast by up to 18 percent as it benefits from the tourism boom.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: Tourism Holdings
Duration: 1'05"

12:24
Midday markets for 30 April 2015
BODY:
For the latest from the markets we're joined by Andrew Cathie at Craigs Investment Partners.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'34"

12:26
Midday Sports News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
The world rugby player of the year, All Black and Chiefs lock Brodie Rettallick faces another stint on the sidelines after suffering another shoulder injury.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'55"

12:34
Midday Rural News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
News from the rural and farming sectors.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 9'12"

=SHOW NOTES=

===1:06 PM. | Afternoons===
=DESCRIPTION=

Information and debate, people and places around NZ

=AUDIO=

13:08
Your Song - I find your love
BODY:
Colin Newel of West Auckland has chosen 'I find your love' by Beth Nielsen-Chapman.
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 11'22"

13:20
New Zealand A to Z - Beekeeping
BODY:
With hundreds of new beekeepers signing up for the hobby every year, there's a real buzz around the humble honey bee. As well as being a hot new hobby, beekeeping has long been a business in New Zealand, with commercial hives making a significant contribution to the agricultural sector every year.
EXTENDED BODY:

Photo: RNZ / Diego Opatowski
With hundreds of new beekeepers signing up for the hobby every year, there's a real buzz around the humble honey bee. As well as being a hot new hobby, beekeeping has long been a business in New Zealand, with commercial hives making a significant contribution to the agricultural sector every year.
Gallery: Beekeeping in New Zealand
Jesse Mulligan talks bees with John Hartnell, head of Federated Farmers Bee Industry Group; Kim Kneijber from the Auckland Bee Keepers Association; Walter Dendl, Auckland backyard beekeeper, Auckland; and the beekeeping lawyer Stephen Franks.
Related

This Way Up's Backyard Bee Team
More about bees and honey

John Hartnell’s top five tips for newbies:
Read one book, and one book only. He recommends Practical Beekeeping in New Zealand.
Join a club, and observe someone at work.
Get some hardware. Your local association can tell you where to find bee suits, smoker, hive tools, hives, swarms and a queen cell.
Register your hive - you must by law.

Topics: farming, rural, life and society
Regions:
Tags: bees, beekeeping
Duration: 40'12"

14:09
Giant turtle - Mark Pengelly
BODY:
One man's mission to find out why a rare species of turtle died in the Marlborough Sounds
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: turtle, leatherback turtle
Duration: 10'24"

14:44
Feature album - Sound and Color
BODY:
Sound and Color is the second album from American rock band Alabama Shakes. The group was first formed in 2009 in a town called Athens in Alabama, where lead singer-guitarist Brittany Howard and bassist Zac Cockrell went to high school together and started writing songs. Then drummer Steve Johnson and Guitarist Heath Fogg joined.
Topics: music
Regions:
Tags: Feature album, Alabama Shakes
Duration: 15'33"

15:12
The Expats - Hester Moore
BODY:
Recent Canterbury law graduate, Hester Moore, talks to us from Egypt where she is working with refugees.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Egypt, Hester Moore
Duration: 13'54"

15:24
70th anniversary of Adolf Hitler's death
BODY:
We've heard from one of our listeners today who says his cousin was one of the first officers to enter the bunker where Hitler had killed himself. Sebastian Wilberforce is on the line.
Topics: history
Regions:
Tags: Adolf Hitler, Hitler, WW2
Duration: 6'34"

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 30 April 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 14'04"

=SHOW NOTES=

1:10 Your Song
I find your love by Beth Nielsen-Chapman. Chosen by Colin Newel of West Auckland
1:20 New Zealand A to Z - Beekeeping
John Hartnell - Federated Farmers Bee Industry Group
Kim Kneijber - Auckland Bee Keepers Association
Walter Dendl - Backyard beekeeper, Pt Chev Auckland
Stephen Franks - lawyer, beekeeper, Wellington
Gallery: Beekeeping
2:10 Giant turtle - Mark Pengelly
One man's mission to find out why a rare species of turtle died in the Marlborough Sounds
2:30 NZ Reading - Milk by Susy Pointon
Can you find love in a milking shed? Tanya escapes her past and drags her kids and alcoholic ex, north to the Hokianga where she soon finds herself living and working on a dairy farm
2:45 Feature album
Alabama Shakes. Sound & Color
3:10 The Expats - Hester Moore
Recent Canterbury law graduate, Hester Moore, talks to us from Egypt where she is working with refugees
3:20 BBC Witness - The Jane Fonda Workout
Lucy Burns of the BBC history programme 'Witness' recalls the birth of "The Jane Fonda Workout"
3:35 Our Changing World - Alison Ballance
An array of underwater microphones is remotely recording sounds made by marine mammals, fish, and invertebrates in the Hauraki Gulf - and Rosalyn Putland, from the University of Auckland’s Leigh Marine Laboratory, plays Alison Ballance some of the recordings and explains how she wants to build up an underwater soundscape for the Gulf
3:45 The Panel Pre-Show
What the world is talking about. With Simon Mercep, Zara Potts, Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley Moore

MUSIC DETAILS
Thursday 30 April

YOUR SONG:

ARTIST: Beth Nielsen-Chapman
TITLE: I Find Your Love
COMP: Beth Nielsen-Chapman
ALBUM: (I-Tunes download)
LABEL: INHOUSE 1406

A to Z (Bees):

ARTIST: The Archies
TITLE: Sugar Sugar
COMP: Jeff Barry / Andy Kim
ALBUM: The Archies: Absolutely The Best Of
LABEL: FUEL 112023

ARTIST: Feist
TITLE: Honey Honey
COMP: Feist
ALBUM: The Reminder
LABEL: UNIVERSAL 984741

ARTIST: Dusty Springfield
TITLE: Tupelo Honey
COMP: Van Morrison
ALBUM: Cameo
LABEL: MERCURY 538912

ARTIST: The Bird And The Bee
TITLE: My Love
COMP: George, Kurstin
ALBUM: Ray Guns Are Not Just The Future
LABEL: BLUENOTE 234556

FEATURE ALBUM:

ARTIST: Alabama Shakes
TITLE: Sound & Color
COMP: Brittany Howard / Alabama Shakes
ALBUM: Sound & Color
LABEL: ROUGHTRADE 700750

ARTIST: Alabama Shakes
TITLE: Don't Wanna Fight
COMP: Brittany Howard / Alabama Shakes
ALBUM: Sound & Color
LABEL: ROUGHTRADE 700750

ARTIST: Alabama Shakes
TITLE: Future People
COMP: Brittany Howard / Blake Mills / Alabama Shakes
ALBUM: Sound & Color
LABEL: ROUGHTRADE 700750

ARTIST: Alabama Shakes
TITLE: This Feeling
COMP: Brittany Howard / Alabama Shakes
ALBUM: Sound & Color
LABEL: ROUGHTRADE 700750

PANEL HALF-TIME:

ARTIST: Roger Whittaker
TITLE: Finnish Whistler
COMP: Trad,Arr Whittaker
ALBUM: Greatest Hits (1989)
LABEL: RCA

===4:06 PM. | The Panel===
=DESCRIPTION=

An hour of discussion featuring a range of panellists from right along the opinion spectrum (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

15:45
The Panel pre-show for 30 April 2015
BODY:
Your feedback, and a preview of the guests and topics on The Panel.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 14'04"

16:07
The Panel with Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley Moore (Part 1)
BODY:
What the Panelists Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley-Moore have been up to. Select committee submitter says give kids the vote on the flag. How should New Zealand act towards Indonesia after the executions of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran? West Coast religious community Gloriavale is getting massive media attention. We ask religious historian Prof Peter Lineham of Massey University if putting the pressure on will change its reclusive ways.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 23'24"

16:09
The Panel intro
BODY:
What the Panelists Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley-Moore have been up to.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 1'29"

16:11
NZ flag
BODY:
Select committee submitter says give kids the vote on the flag.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag
Duration: 2'42"

16:13
NZ and Indonesia
BODY:
How should New Zealand act towards Indonesia after the executions of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran?
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Indonesia, Bali, drugs
Duration: 5'10"

16:18
Hounding Gloriavale
BODY:
West Coast religious community Gloriavale is getting massive media attention. We ask religious historian Prof Peter Lineham of Massey University if putting the pressure on will change its reclusive ways.
Topics: spiritual practices
Regions: West Coast
Tags: Gloriavale
Duration: 10'42"

16:32
Panel with Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley Moore (Part 2)
BODY:
From an ancient Roman festival to a boatswain's pipe the wolf whistle alerts men to the presence of women. How predatory is it? What the Panelists Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley-Moore have been thinking about. Housing affordability is major cities around the world is hetting worse. We talk to NZIER senior economist Shamubeel Eaqub about what the social outcomes of this will be. Charging interest on loans goes against Muslim principles. One woman trying to convince a bank to give her an interest-free mortgage. She says thousands of Muslims are being forced to choose between their religion and economic stability. Ham radios are being used in Nepal after the devastating earthquake knocked out much of the modern communication systems.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 26'56"

16:33
Wolf whistle
BODY:
From an ancient Roman festival to a boatswain's pipe the wolf whistle alerts men to the presence of women. How predatory is it?
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: wolf whistle
Duration: 6'28"

16:40
Panel Says
BODY:
What the Panelists Andrew Clay and Julia Hartley-Moore have been thinking about.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'39"

16:43
Housing affordability
BODY:
Housing affordability is major cities around the world is hetting worse. We talk to NZIER senior economist Shamubeel Eaqub about what the social outcomes of this will be.
Topics: housing
Regions:
Tags: housing affordability
Duration: 8'24"

16:51
Muslim lending
BODY:
Charging interest on loans goes against Muslim principles. One woman trying to convince a bank to give her an interest-free mortgage. She says thousands of Muslims are being forced to choose between their religion and economic stability.
Topics: money
Regions:
Tags: Muslim lending
Duration: 3'56"

16:55
Communications in Nepal
BODY:
Ham radios are being used in Nepal after the devastating earthquake knocked out much of the modern communication systems.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, Ham Radio
Duration: 2'22"

16:58
Wolf whistle extra
BODY:
Mary listeners have been feeding in their comments on this subject.
Topics: life and society
Regions:
Tags: wolf whistle
Duration: 1'58"

=SHOW NOTES=

===5:00 PM. | Checkpoint===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand's two-hour news and current affairs programme

=AUDIO=

17:00
Checkpoint Top Stories for Thursday 30 April 2015
BODY:
A partial backdown by the Ports of Auckland over its extension plans. The slow pace of the relief in Nepal and the forecast milk payout drops again.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 22'20"

17:07
Mayor breaks stalemate over surprise wharf extension offer
BODY:
One of Auckland's two controversial wharf extensions has won the go ahead by the narrowest of margins.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: ports, Ports of Auckland
Duration: 4'20"

17:12
Protester says compromise is "one-fingered salute"
BODY:
One of the organisers of the public campaign against the wharf extension says the port's offer to halt one of them is a one-fingered salute to the people of Auckland.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: ports, Ports of Auckland
Duration: 4'02"

17:16
$25m awarded to owners of leaky Auckland high-rise
BODY:
A court has awarded 25-million dollars in compensation to the residents of a leaky Auckland high-rise apartment that was flawed from top to bottom.
Topics: housing
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: leaky building
Duration: 4'35"

17:21
New Zealand mountaineer heads up small rescue team in Nepal
BODY:
In Nepal, the slow pace of the relief effort, especially in remote areas, is prompting a Wanaka mountain guide to set up his own rescue team.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, earthquake
Duration: 3'55"

17:24
Len Brown on the wharf extension vote
BODY:
More now on our lead story. And a casting vote by Auckland's Mayor this afternoon has given the go-ahead to one of two controversial wharf extensions.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: ports, Ports of Auckland
Duration: 5'07"

17:33
Today's market update
BODY:
The New Zealand dollar fell more than one cent against the US dollar this morning, after the Reserve Bank of New Zealand removed the prospect of an increase to the official cash rate.
Topics: business, economy
Regions:
Tags: markets
Duration: 2'05"

17:36
Hastings District Council sentenced
BODY:
The Hastings District Council must pay 65 thousand dollars to the family of a small boy run over and killed in a park by a tractor mower.
Topics: crime
Regions: Hawkes Bay
Tags: tractor mower
Duration: 2'06"

17:39
2800 state houses to transfer - but questions over expertise
BODY:
The head of the company taking over thousands of Auckland state houses says they may have to hire Housing New Zealand staff to help run them.
Topics: housing
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Housing NZ, Tamaki Redevelopment Company
Duration: 5'45"

17:44
Blessie Gotingco hit while on footpath - crash expert
BODY:
A police crash expert says he believes Blessie Gotingco was walking on the footpath when she was hit by a car.
Topics: crime
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Blessie Gotingco
Duration: 4'04"

17:48
Farmers face tight times ahead
BODY:
A Waikato dairy farmer has described today's drop in forecast milk payout as just another blow for farmers still recovering from extreme weather which brought drought and flooding in different parts of the counrty.
Topics: rural, farming
Regions:
Tags: dairy price, Fonterra
Duration: 3'19"

17:51
Iwi firm takes food from Palmy to Dubai
BODY:
An iwi-owned company has landed a new deal to supply Dubai with emergency food pouches. The wealthy Arab emirate is buying relief packs from New Zealand to dispatch to countries hit by disasters. From Te Manu Korihi news, Laura Bootham reports.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 2'53"

17:54
American mining giant sells Waihi, quits NZ
BODY:
The American mining giant Newmont is quitting this country after a quarter of a century, selling its Waihi mine to Oceana Gold.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: Waihi mine, Oceana Gold, Newmont
Duration: 3'03"

18:06
Sports News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An update from the team at RNZ Sport.
Topics: sport
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'15"

18:12
One port extension in Auckland gets the go ahead
BODY:
A divisive extension of Auckland's wharves has won the go ahead but only because the mayor used his casting vote to break a council deadlock this afternoon.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Ports of Auckland, Bledisloe Wharf
Duration: 3'00"

18:14
Port chief has more
BODY:
The Ports of Auckland chief executive Tony Gibson is with us.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Ports of Auckland, Bledisloe Wharf
Duration: 4'40"

18:14
Business community labels proposed Akl transport levy "unfair"
BODY:
Auckland's Chamber of Commerce says a proposed council levy to fund Auckland's major transport projects is lazy and unfair.
Topics: transport
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: council levy
Duration: 3'51"

18:23
Antony De Malmanche currently facing the death penalty
BODY:
The lawyer for a New Zealander currently facing the death penalty in Indonesia says he doesn't want the government interfering, yet.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Bali, death sentence, drugs
Duration: 4'16"

18:27
Call for school students to vote on new flag
BODY:
A call today for the Government to allow school students to vote on the future of New Zealand's flag has fallen on deaf ears.
Topics: politics, education
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand Flag
Duration: 3'11"

18:35
New Zealand mountaineer heads up small rescue team in Nepal
BODY:
A New Zealand mountaineer, frustrated at the time it's taking to get desperately needed aid to remote areas, is setting up his own rescue team.
Topics:
Regions:
Tags: Nepal, earthquake
Duration: 4'59"

18:39
No interest loans to comply with Muslim sharia law
BODY:
An Auckland fund manager says he's hoping to meet a huge untapped demand for home loans that comply with Muslim sharia law.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: home loans, Muslim sharia law
Duration: 3'52"

18:44
Government confirms state houses transfer in Tamaki
BODY:
The Government says tenants will be well looked after when it hands over ownership of thousands of state homes, but Labour's casting doubt on that.
Topics: business, housing
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: Tamaki Redevelopment Company
Duration: 3'33"

18:47
Te Manu Korihi News for 30 April 2015
BODY:
An iwi-owned company has landed a new deal to supply Dubai with emergency food pouches; The Te Matatini National Committee has announced the dates of when the next national kapa haka competition will take place; Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi is in the middle of two days of graduation celebrations in Whakatane.
Topics: te ao Māori
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 3'06"

18:51
Today In Parliament for 30 April 2015 - evening edition
BODY:
Korean trade deal up for consideration by Foreign Affairs, Defence & Trade Committee - who hear from Auckland University Law Professor Jane Kelsey; Free trade issues also subject of questions to Todd McClay; Phil Twyford puts questions to Housing Minister Nick Smith.
Topics: politics
Regions:
Tags:
Duration: 4'59"

18:56
New Zealand risks missing opportunities in China
BODY:
The New Zealand China Council is calling for many more New Zealanders to learn Mandarin.
Topics: business
Regions:
Tags: New Zealand China Council, Mandarin
Duration: 2'28"

=SHOW NOTES=

===7:06 PM. | Nights===
=DESCRIPTION=

Entertainment and information, including: 7:30 At the Movies with Simon Morris: Current film releases and film related topics (RNZ) 8:13 Windows on the World: International public radio features and documentaries 9:06 Our Changing World: Science and environment news from NZ and the world (RNZ)

=AUDIO=

19:10
Mt John to Star Wobbles
BODY:
How being a student at Mt John Observatory set Prof. Gerry Gilmore on a path to be an Experimental Philosopher in an Institute of Astronomy, studying the delicate wobbles of stars and being part of the Gaia spacecraft mission.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: astronomy, MtJohn Observatory, stars, Gaia
Duration: 20'45"

20:38
Hip hop
BODY:
University of Auckland ethnomusicologist Dr Kirsten Zemke raps about hip hop music and culture. Latin hip hop.
Topics: music, life and society
Regions:
Tags: hip hop, rap music, latin hip hop, latino culture
Duration: 20'59"

=SHOW NOTES=

7:10 Mt John to Star Wobbles
How being a student at Mt John Observatory set Prof. Gerry Gilmore on a path to be an Experimental Philosopher in an Institute of Astronomy, studying the delicate wobbles of stars and being part of the Gaia spacecraft mission.
7:30 At the Movies

=SHOW NOTES=

=AUDIO=

19:30
At The Movies for 30 April 2015
BODY:
Simon Morris welcomes the blockbuster season - or at least big films. Avengers Age Of Ultron tackles trendy Artificial Intelligence… Testament of Youth is a film version of a famous First World War memoir… and the award-winning Leviathan takes a critical look at Putin's Russia.
EXTENDED BODY:

Avengers: Age Of Ultron screen shot.
Simon Morris welcomes the blockbuster season - or at least big films.
Avengers: Age Of Ultron tackles trendy Artificial Intelligence…
Testament of Youth is a film version of a famous First World War memoir…
and the award-winning Leviathan takes a critical look at Putin's Russia.
The Big Picture with Simon Morris.
While it’s enjoyable to see a small movie that focuses on character in a specific place, sometimes you’re in the mood for something bigger.
And when a film-maker has millions of bucks at his or her disposal, it must be extremely tempting to tackle Big Subjects – war, politics, the end-game of all this scary technology…
But of course, those millions come from somebody else’s pocket – studio bosses who are far more interested in making more money than just spending what they have on Big Subjects. So – generally – you have to disguise your lofty ambitions, or at least make them palatable to a big audience. Like the punters who made such a big hit out of the first movie featuring Marvel Comics’ Avengers. The follow-up – Age of Ultron - is far more about making something good and big than a warning wag of the finger at the dangers of hi-tech.
Similarly, Harry Potter producer David Heyman had another reason to make yet another anti-war film. Vera Brittain’s book Testament of Youth is one of the most famous accounts ever of the First World War from a woman’s perspective. Though it does make you wonder why it hasn’t already been turned into a movie…
When it comes to big issues though, one country towers above us all. Russia has been ruled over the centuries by more crooks, psychopaths and out-and-out villains than any other. No wonder the latest critique was called Leviathan.
But just because a film’s about a Big Subject doesn’t necessarily mean it’s going to be a big movie.
Film-makers are story-tellers. They’re not usually philosophers. And they tend to trip up when they forget that.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: movies, film review, film
Duration: 23'40"

19:31
Avengers: Age of Ultron - film review
BODY:
Avengers: Age Of Ultron starts off with good intentions, and tackles trendy Artificial Intelligence.
EXTENDED BODY:
Avengers: Age of Ultron - directed by Joss Whedon, starring Robert Downey Junior, Mark Ruffalo, Scarlett Johanssen

The story starts with misguided scientists Tony Stark, aka Iron Man (Robert Downey Jr.) and Bruce Banner, a.k.a. the Hulk (Jeremy Renner) trying to invent something that will allow the Avengers to take some time off. A super robot protector… Once you hear the dreaded initials AI – Artificial Intelligence – you know this isn’t going to end well.
Against all advice, Tony Stark builds his Ultron Programme – initially a big robot with severe personality problems. Yes, Ultron may have Artificial Intelligence, but he’s also an artificial psychopath. He decides to conquer the world, and enlists two assistants, equally neurotic twins Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch.
The Scarlet Witch has a convenient ability to tap into the individual Avengers’ personal phobias, allowing rather more character development than we’re used to in a men-and-women-in-tights action thriller.
Like his hero, Mr Shakespeare, writer-director Joss Whedon is a master of giving everyone enough material to shine whenever we come to them. And, again like the Bard of Avon, he makes two and a half hours fly past before you realise it.
I’m not saying Age of Ultron is one for the ages – I suspect Hamlet, Othello and King Lear will outlast it. But it’s likely to be the most entertaining film you’ll devour popcorn to this year.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film, film review
Duration: 7'09"

19:40
Testament of Youth - film review
BODY:
Testament of Youth is a film version of a famous First World War novel… can it do justice to a classic memoir?
EXTENDED BODY:
Testament of Youth - directed by James Kent, starring Alicia Vikander, Kit Harington.

Vera Brittain’s memoir Testament of Youth was published in 1933, and was - and is – acclaimed as a classic. It tells the story of upper-middle-class Vera, who shocks her parents by wanting to go to University. This is in 1913.
Less shocked than the oldies are Vera’s closest friends – her brother Edward and his two best buddies, Victor and Roland. Roland in particular is extremely supportive of Vera’s intellectual ambitions. He’s an aspiring poet himself, and urges Vera to become a writer.
Now clearly when Vera Brittain wrote Testament of Youth, this was quite a big deal. Women a hundred years ago were actively discouraged from doing anything apart from look for a suitable, supportive husband.
In background, ominous war-noises are rumbling. Once it happens, all the young men in Vera’s life feel impelled to get into it. It’ll be an adventure, they think, and it will all be over by Christmas.
In other words the first hour and a bit of Testament of Youth is like the first ten minutes of just about every First World War film, book and TV series ever made. I assume this is because the original book was such a game-changer that it affected every subsequent telling of this story.
I’m guessing that Testament of Youth - following Vera Brittain’s transition from participant in the War to passionate pacifist - must have earned its classic status through Brittain’s skill and talent as a writer.
And good writing is just about the hardest thing to translate into a movie.
Essentially Testament of Youth is a film depending on the reputation of the original book. And like most literary adaptations, the plot alone isn’t enough to sustain it. Often the best advice in these cases is “flick the flick, get out the book”. As it is here.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film, film review
Duration: 17'39"

19:50
Leviathan - film review
BODY:
The award-winning Leviathan takes a critical look at Putin's Russia, and what better metaphor than the Biblical monster?
EXTENDED BODY:
Leviathan - directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev.

The Russian film Leviathan is a real, original movie, though at times it feels like a big, hard-back novel.
It’s been hugely acclaimed, winning best script at Cannes, and being nominated for - and occasionally winning - every film award going. It’s certainly ambitious.
Leviathan, as its name suggests, touches on the meaning of power and politics, first introduced by economic philosopher Thomas Hobbes in the book of the same name.
It’s also about religion – the original sea monster made his debut in the Biblical Book of Job.
Along the way, the film finds room for the generation gap, sexual politics and a huge, actual whale skeleton, washed up on the beach of the Barendts Sea, right at the top of Russia, the site of a bleak little village where Kolya lives with his second wife Lilya and his son Roma.
Kolya’s house has been claimed by the corrupt mayor of the village, and he’s called in his friend Dmitri to help fight it.
Dmitri is a big-city lawyer from Moscow, and he’s got a plan. Although the legal appeal is likely to lose – kicked out by a judge with barely a second glance – Dmitri isn’t fazed. He has friends in high places – and a lot of hard evidence of the crooked dealings the mayor has been up to. The mayor appears to capitulate in the face of all this evidence, but he’s just stalling, and everyone knows it.
Confusing the issue is the fact that Kolya’s best friend Dmitri isn’t just in town to provide legal advice. He’s got his eye on Kolya’s dissatisfied wife Lilya.
With a film as gargantuan as Leviathan – in Russian no less – it’s impossible to cover all the shifts and turns.
In fact, it’s not always clear what position the film is taking. Is it crusading against Putin’s Russia, or is it shrugging its shoulders at the inevitability of Fate?
At the end, like poor old Job, the good characters take most of the divine hits, while the ratbags seem unscathed.
It’s not as simple as that, of course - nothing in Russia is. But you come out of the film with a chilly feeling – and not just because all the action takes place at zero temperature.
Topics: arts
Regions:
Tags: film, film review
Duration: 5'41"

7:30 At the Movies
Films and movie business with Simon Morris.
8:10 Windows on the World
International public radio documentaries - visit the Windows on the World web page to find links to these documentaries.
8:40 Hip hop
University of Auckland ethnomusicologist Dr Kirsten Zemke raps about hip hop music and culture. Latin hip hop.
9:06 Our Changing World

=SHOW NOTES=

Coming Up On Our Changing World on Thursday 7 May 2015
We hear about the devastating facial tumour disease in Tasmanian devils and some hope for the future, an exercise physiology clinic for people with medical and surgical conditions, a computer baby that’s learning languages to see if syntax and sensory motor experiences are linked, and a voyage to explore methane gas flares on the seabed off Gisborne.

=AUDIO=

21:06
'First Step' in Reducing Methane Emissions
BODY:
An AgResearch team identifies five compounds that reduce methane emissions from livestock by up to 90 per cent in initial trials.
EXTENDED BODY:
By Veronika Meduna Veronika.Meduna@radionz.co.nz
The programme has been looking for new types of inhibitors of methane production from the rumen. This can be regarded as a first step in the process towards developing something that can be used on the farm. Peter Janssen, AgResearch

A team of AgResearch scientists has identified five compounds that reduce methane emissions from livestock by up to 90 per cent in initial short-term trials, providing a technology that could significantly reduce New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions.
New Zealand is unusual among developed countries in that almost half of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture, mostly in the form of methane from belching livestock and nitrous oxide from fertilised soils. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and currently accounts for 44 per cent of New Zealand’s total emissions. Most of this methane comes from livestock.
AgResearch principal scientist Peter Janssen, who coordinates the methane research programme, says the findings are the culmination of five years of work, during which the team screened more than 100,000 compounds through computer-based searches and in laboratory experiments. The screening process identified five compounds that have now been tested successfully in sheep, showing a significant reduction in methane production over a two-day period.
The rumen is the first and largest part of the multi-chambered stomach of grass-eating ruminant animals, including sheep and cattle. It acts as a fermentation vat where microbes break down the cellulose in the plant material to make it digestible. One group of rumen microbes, the methanogens, takes up surplus hydrogen and produces methane.
In recognition of the fact that methane accounts for most of New Zealand’s agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, several research organisations have formed the NZ Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, hosted by AgResearch, in 2009 to investigate ways of mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. Even earlier in 2003, the government and the pastoral industry had formed the Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium which funded some of the fundamental research to sequence the methanogen genome and to identify targets for inhibitors. Peter Janssen says the effort is now paying off.
These initial steps are relatively short-term trials in sheep and they show that you get a reduction of methane between 30 to 90 per cent. It’s a very exciting result but there’s still a lot of checking to be done before you actually get something that a farmer can use safely.

AgResearch scientist Ron Ronimus, who leads the methane inhibitor discovery project, says the team made use of genetic information that became available when the first complete genome of a methanogen was published in 2010. Of the roughly 500 known genes, the team focused on finding compounds that would inhibit the function of those that are known to be involved in the production of methane.
Methanogens belong to a group of ancient microbes known as archaea, and that is an advantage. “They are very different from other bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are also in the rumen, breaking down the fibre during the fermentation.”
The team scaled up the discovery process by screening thousands of potential compounds in the laboratory and then testing the most promising inhibitors in sealed containers of real rumen fluid.
“It’s a very thick funnel if you like, we’re putting many compounds in at the top and getting very few out at the bottom.”
Each of the five compounds had to pass toxicity tests before they could be tested in sheep in respiration chambers that allow the science team to monitor changes in methane emissions precisely, as well as feed intake.
“The intention is to only hit the methanogens,” says Peter Janssen. “The nice thing about the way the programme is structured is that the last major test before the compounds go into the animal is to test them in rumen contents that have been taken from an animal.
If it has a general impact on other microbes in the system, then you see that the whole fermentation shuts down. If it’s only affecting the methanogens then you see that the fermentation continues just like normal, and it’s only the methane part that is affected. If it then passes subsequent toxicity testing then we know we can safely try it in an animal.

The team will now test if the inhibition effect lasts long-term and whether it could even be used to increase animal productivity.
Earlier research suggests that methanogens are not an essential part of the rumen microbial community, but rather opportunists that make use of surplus hydrogen that is a by-product of the fermentation process.
“Certainly when you knock out the methanogens in experiments we’ve done to date the animal seems to carry on eating and seems to be ok, and all of the published studies suggest that the methanogens don’t seem to be essential. They are just really good at surviving there [in the rumen] and they take a cut of the energy.”
In fact, methanogens take up to 15 per cent of the energy that could otherwise be available to the animal, and the team hopes to recapture some of that loss. An ideal outcome of the research would be both a reduction in methane emissions and an increase in productivity.
The team says that apart from monitoring such desired effects, larger-scale trials are also necessary to rule out any negative effects such as residues in meat or milk. Ron Ronimus says residues may not be an issue as the compounds have already been preselected to be non-toxic and not soluble in fat so that they don’t accumulate in milk. “They are also easily metabolised and quickly eliminated, and of course specific to methanogens. A combination of these properties and aiming for the most highly potent compound, which reduces the concentration that you’ll need sometimes by orders of magnitude, the residue issue will not be a problem.”
One of the strategies to deal with the possibility that the methanogens become resistant to the inhibitor treatments is to develop a suite of compounds that would be used simultaneously to override the ability of the microbes to adapt.
The team’s goal is to have a farm-scale product available or at least close to commercialisation within five years.
“We think we can do this,” says Peter Janssen. “The fact that the programme, which really only started about five years ago, this inhibitor discovery … has come up with pretty much the first five that were tested in animals look pretty good. I think there is a very good chance of coming up with something that will be useful.”
The search for methanogen inhibitors is one of four main strategies to develop new technologies to reduce methane emissions from livestock in New Zealand. Others are to develop a vaccine, to breed for naturally low-emitting animals and to find feeds that result in less methane being produced.
Peter Jansen describes the latter two as “almost sure bet but small impact”.
“They are really worth doing because they probably going to work. We know that these things can work and the programmes are very well advanced. Two other projects funders have backed are much more technically difficult … but their impacts are much greater.”
With the progress made in identifying methanogen inhibitors, he says we “could be talking potentially 90 per cent methane reduction, which would be an enormous impact on New Zealand’s greenhouse gas footprint”.
Topics: science, environment
Regions:
Tags: ruminants, methane, greenhouse gas emissions, inhibitors, pastoral greenhouse gases, AgResearch
Duration: 17'53"

21:20
How Electrical Stimulation Might Help Stroke Recovery
BODY:
Researchers hope that electrical brain stimulation, like that used to treat Parkinson's disease, may help people who've had a stroke regain their movements
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
With someone who has had a stroke, and has difficulty lifting up a cup or a glass – if you could improve their movement by 20-30% and enable them to lift a glass you’ve made a large difference to their life.

John Reynolds, from the Department of Anatomy at the University of Otago, has spent his research career studying the human brain, and in particular how the brain responds to Parkinson’ disease and stroke. Now, he’s hoping to take a common treatment for one condition and use it for the other one to help improve movements.
“Following a stroke most people have a movement or motor deficit, which makes it hard for them to control parts of their body. So the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body for movement, for example. And if you have a stroke parts of the brain cells that go down to those areas die off, and … you can’t generate normal movements.”
What we’ve been focusing on [and what not many people know] is that one side of the brain tends to inhibit the other side of the brain. So they’re mutually in inhibition – when you want to make a movement you have to release the inhibition on one side, and make the movement. That’s how it normally works. And the reason we have that nice little balanced system is that we’re trying to avoid mirror movement. But what happens in stroke is that the other side of the brain tends to over-inhibit the areas around the stroke, and that makes it very difficult to rehabilitate and recover function. So we’re very interested in how we can remove that inhibition and improve function in someone who’s already been through the usual rehabilitation.

Deep brain stimulation using a stimulator implanted in the brain has become an accepted treatment for movement disorders related to Parkinson’s disease, and John and his team think that it might have similar beneficial effects for people following stroke. The idea came about almost by accident when a previous PhD student in John’s lab combined two different techniques, and discovered that electrical stimulation turned off inhibition in the brain. PhD student Laura Boddington is now trialling different patterns and intensities of electrical stimulation in an animal model, with good results.
Laura explains that they “are applying a specific pattern of stimulation to the good side of the brain. Basically this is allowing us to modulate this inhibition and allow the tissue surrounding the stroke area to rewire itself and allow for better recovery.” They have trialled two patterns of stimulation and one shows good results, with a 30-50% improvement in movement, while the other doesn’t, so it’s the clear the pattern and spacing of electrical pulses is important. Laura is now investigating the dose of the stimulation to see if that has an effect.
They are now hoping to work towards clinical trials with Dirk de Ridder, a clinical neurosurgeon at Dunedin Hospital.
Topics: science, health
Regions:
Tags: stroke, rehabilitation, electrical brain stimulation, brain
Duration: 14'08"

21:34
Genes for Bulbing in Onions
BODY:
University of Otago scientists have discovered the genes for bulbing in onions which may result in more reliability and bulbs better tailored to climate
EXTENDED BODY:
by Ruth Beran
University of Otago researchers have discovered the underlying genetic mechanism for bulbing in onions, research that may result in onions that more reliably produce bulbs when required or are better tailored for climatic conditions.
While it’s been known for nearly 100 years that bulb formation in onions is linked to day length, the genes responsible for bulbing were not known.
Finding the underlying genetic mechanism was a bit of a surprise for the team.
“We thought we were looking at flowering in onions," says plant molecular geneticist Robyn Lee, "but it turns out we were looking at bulbing."

Understanding when a plant flowers is an important trait for any breeder, because the timing of flowering in a plant determines when it produces its fruit or grain.
Onions have a complicated life cycle where it takes two seasons from planting to get the bulb. In some instances, the plants will put its resources into a flower instead of a bulb and that plant is wasted.
“The project started to try and first understand why the onion bulbs flower prematurely,” says Dr Richard Macknight.
Using high-throughput genetic sequencing, the genes in onions could be discovered at a relatively low cost. Genes where extracted and put into a small, quick growing model plant called Arabidopsis to look at how they affected flowering time. The expression of genes that affected flowering were then studied in onions, over time, and in different light and growth conditions.
“The gene that caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis was highly expressed in the juvenile form of the onion plant, and not at all expressed in a bulbing plant,” says Robyn. “And the gene that had accelerated flowering in Arabidopsis was highly expressed in a bulbing onion but not at all in a juvenile onion. Which quite surprised us.”
It was then that the scientists knew they were looking at genes for bulbing not flowering in onions.
Their discovery can now be used to help breeders make better varieties of onions, particularly as there are two classes of onions grown around the world: short-day and long-day onions.
Long-day onions are grown in places like New Zealand, America and Europe where we have long days in spring and summer. These onions require 16 hours of day length to trigger bulb formation.
Short-day onions are grown in tropical regions liked Asia, India and Africa where day length is shorter, requiring only 12 hours of day length to make bulbs. “The short-day varieties are not nearly as well developed, so their shelf life is poorer, and the quality is less,” says Richard, “but the onions evolved from those short-day areas so there’s a lot of diversity.”
Understanding the genetic mechanisms in onions may mean that traits like better shelf life, better quality, and higher yields from long-day onions could be transferred to short-day onions. Conversely, disease resistance genes could be brought from short-day onions into long-day onions.
“If you’re going to do that sort of swapping around, then you really need to know what the difference between a long-day onion and a short-day onion is,” says Richard. “We know the hormone involved, our next step, and what we’re working on right now is to discover what is the difference between the long and the short-day onion.”

Topics: science, farming
Regions:
Tags: onions, bulbs, genes, flowering
Duration: 14'50"

21:40
Web Only Special: Long and Short Day Onions
BODY:
Jiffin Khosa is continuing with the research on bulbing in onions to look at the difference between the short and long day varieties
EXTENDED BODY:
PhD student Jiffin Khosa is trying to discover the difference between long and short-day onions. In particular, he is looking to see if there is a difference in the clock genes which are important for measuring day length.
Topics: science, farming
Regions:
Tags: onions, short day, long day, bulbing, clock, genes
Duration: 10'20"

21:46
Underwater Soundscape of the Hauraki Gulf
BODY:
Underwater sounds as varied as sea urchins and boats, fish and whales, as well as dolphins and waves are helping build an underwater sound map of the Hauraki Gulf
EXTENDED BODY:
By Alison Ballance
Half a million minutes of underwater recordings (and counting) later, PhD student Rosalyn Putland is well on the way to her goal of creating an underwater sound map of the Hauraki Gulf. Along the way she’s recorded dolphins, whales, fish, urchins – lots of urchins – as well as lots of boats, big and small. Rosalyn says sound is a very important sense for marine animals.
Sound travels much further through water than through air. It’s much faster, roughly four times faster in water than in air. And that’s why it’s such an important sense for animals in the marine ecosystem. We use visual cues on land, we usually see things before we hear them, but it’s completely the other way round for anything in the ocean.

Bottlenose dolphins and common dolphins both feature in the underwater recordings, which are made by a network of six remote hydrophones anchored to the sea bed at depths between 8 and 50 metres. The hydrophones record for 2 minutes every 20-minutes, for up to two months at a time, before the data needs to be downloaded. Rosalyn Putland, from the University of Auckland’s Institute of Marine Science, based at the Leigh Marine Laboratory, says there are a lot of quiet recordings, as well as daily dawn and dusk pulses of sound made by feeding sea urchins rasping their mouthparts. Rosalyn says that with bottlenose dolphins “there’s lots going on: whistle, clicks and what I like to call kissing sounds. They’re harmonic sounds which cover the whole frequency range.” Common dolphins don’t use the ‘kissing’ sounds.
She has recorded what she thinks are Brydes whale calls, and describes them as short low moans, less than a second long.
The value of recording 24-hours a day is shown in one of Rosalyn’s more unusual findings, that a lot of dolphin vocalisations are happening in the middle of the night, “when we tend not be out on a boat recording.”
Rosalyn says that her sound map will help pinpoint noisy areas in the Hauraki Gulf where there is lots of boat noise.
"The big thing with sound is that unfortunately there aren’t any barriers in the ocean. So we have marine reserves … but they don’t stop sounds coming in. Sounds can travel great distances around the ocean, especially the low frequency sound of boats … so those large tankers can be heard many kilometres away, and that can have an impact [on marine animals]. One key species we’re worried about is the Brydes whale which vocalises down in those low frequencies. And so if we’re having too much boat noise in an area, is that potentially going to have an influence on those Brydes whales in the future."
Former marine science PhD student Shariman Ghazali was the first to record sounds made by New Zealand fish such as big eyes and gurnard.
Brydes whales featured in an our Changing World special on the marine spatial planning process currently underway for the Hauraki Gulf.
Listen to the story Underwater Soundscape of the Hauraki Gulf or download a podcast:
Topics: environment
Regions: Auckland Region
Tags: hydrophone, marine animals, bottlenose dolphins, common dolphins, Brydes whales, Hauraki Gulf, sound recordings, noise
Duration: 18'10"

21:55
Out-of-control Russian Space Capsule
BODY:
Space scientist Duncan Steel explains what will happen to the out-of-control Russian space capsule that failed to reach the International Space Station.
EXTENDED BODY:
by Veronika Meduna
The failed Russian capsule Progress 59 is expected to re-enter Earth's atmosphere this week, burning up in the process.
The unmanned supply ship took off on 28 April, destined to dock with the International Space Station. But shortly after liftoff, the capsule experienced technical difficulties. The Russian mission control team re-established contact with the capsule but has been unable to bring the craft back on its intended route. Since then, tonnes of fresh vegetables, water and personal care parcels from family members of ISS astronauts have been spinning in orbit, out-of-control.
Current forecasts predict that the capsule should fall back to Earth on 8 May.
Space scientist Duncan Steel says the capsule crosses New Zealand twice a day: once travelling (at about 7.8 km per second) from north-west to south-east and passing over the middle of the South Island, and a few hours later from south-west to north-east travelling over the Tasman Sea just to the west of the South Island and then crossing the North Island near Auckland.
Topics: science
Regions:
Tags: space, International Space Station, Russian space capsule, satellites
Duration: 7'01"

9:06 Our Changing World
Science and environment news from New Zealand and the world.
10:17 Late Edition
A review of the leading news from Morning Report, Nine to Noon, Afternoons and Checkpoint. Also hear the latest news from around the Pacific on Radio New Zealand International's Dateline Pacific.
11:06 Iggy & The Stooges: Raw Power
This radio special pays tribute to new Rock & Roll Hall of Fame members, Iggy & the Stooges, and their 1973 album, Raw Power. Jon Langford (The Mekons, Waco Brothers) hosts this four part series on how this seminal album was made, and how it influenced future generations of punk rockers.
Includes interview clips from three Stooges - Iggy Pop, James Williamson and Sott Asheton and others influenced by them, between tracks like "Search and Destroy," "Gimme Danger" and others from the original album as well as previously unheard outtakes and live recordings.
Like the classic quote about the Velvet Underground, it didn’t sell many records at the time, but everyone who bought one started a band. We hear from three such people - Henry Rollins (Black Flag / Rollins Band), Mike Watt (Minutemen / Firehose) and Johnny Marr (Smiths / Modest Mouse / 7 Worlds Collide) , who each count this record as a major influence on their own legendary musical careers. Noted music photographer Mick Rock is also interviewed. (Joyride Media)

===10:00 PM. | Late Edition===
=DESCRIPTION=

Radio New Zealand news, including Dateline Pacific and the day's best interviews from Radio New Zealand National

===11:06 PM. | None (National)===
=DESCRIPTION=

This radio special pays tribute to new Rock & Roll Hall of Fame members, Iggy & the Stooges, and their 1973 album, Raw Power. Jon Langford (The Mekons, Waco Brothers) hosts this four part series on how this seminal album was made, and how it influenced future generations of punk rockers. (Joyride Media)

Favourite item:

Request information

Year 2015

Reference number 274316

Media type AUDIO

Collection Sound Collection

Ngā Taonga Korero Collection

Credits RNZ Collection
Radio New Zealand National, Broadcaster

Duration 24:00:00

Date 30 Apr 2015

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